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Biodiversity of Macrofungi in Northern Door County, WI

Species Descriptions A-C

Agaricus cretacellus (Agaricaceae) No common name

Agaricus cretacellus – This is a new species for Door County and was found at Toft Point on September 2, 2013. A. cretacellus – This species is similar to A. silvacola but it does not turn yellow when cut or bruised and it has smaller spores.

Grows scattered on soil in mixed conifer woods
Cap – 7 to 10cm, convex to plane in age, white to very pale tan, smooth to finely tomentose with a slightly scaly margin, dry.
Gills – free, white to medium pink-brown turning dark brown as spores develop, close to crowded, medium-broad
Flesh – white, thick, mild pleasant odor, no red or yellow stains when cut or bruised.
Stalk – central and curved, 8 to 9cm tall, apex 1cm wide smooth & light brown; base 2cm wide with small bulb, tan, fibrous-striate, cartilaginous, pithy interior, median-superior flaring ring
Spore print – chocolate brown
Spores – elliptical, smooth, 4-6 x 3 microns.
NEW SPECIES TO DOOR COUNTY, found at Toft Point on September 2, 2013.

 

Agaricus haemorrhoidarius (Agaricaceae) Bleeding Agaricus

Agaricus haemorrhoidarius: Cut gills “bleed” red, a substantial ring is on the stalk and a young partly opened cap is at the right. Agaricus haemorrhoidarius

Grows solitary to scattered on soil under conifers
Cap – 6 to 8 cm, broadly convex, brown flat scales on pale tan background, paler incurved margin, dry
Gills – Free, close to crowded, pale tan at first soon dark with spores, broad,
Flesh – Whitish but quickly turns red when cut, medium thick
Stalk – 9 to 10 cm by 8 to 12 mm, flexuous, tan above superior ring, medium brown and smooth below ring, turns red brown where cut, tapers downward
Spore print – Chocolate brown
Spores – 5.5-7.5 x 3.5-4.5 microns, elliptical, entire
Comments: This very uncommon species was reported only twice in Door County, found at Newport State Park on 8-14-86 (a wet summer) and at Toft Point on 8-18-98.

Amanita citrina (Amanitaceae) Citrine Amanita

Amanita citrina: A progression of stages of development show young caps emerging from the sac-like universal veil at the upper right. The center mushroom shows the large basal bulb, free white gills and superior ring on the stalk.

Grows on soil scattered under Eastern White Pine
Cap – 5 to 10 cm wide, convex to flat, pale yellow with flat grayish patches of universal veil
Gills – Free to narrowly attached, white, close, moderately broad
Flesh – White, medium thick, radish-like odor
Stalk – 6 to 12 cm tall by 1 to 1.5 cm wide, superior ring, bulbous base with ragged fragments of universal veil
Spore print – White
Spores – 7.5 – 10 microns, round, entire, amyloid
Comments: Found from late August to early October and is fairly common and seen every year; also found at The Ridges Sanctuary, Mink River Preserve, Whitefish Dunes State Park, Newport State Park, Washington Island and Rock Island

Amanita frostiana (Amanitaceae) Frost’s Amanita

Amanita frostiana: This mature cap has just a few patches of the universal veil on top. Amanita frostiana. shows an entire mushroom with the basal bulb, median ring and white gills.

Grows on soil under conifers, sometimes in a bed of Reindeer Moss Lichen
Cap – 3 to 7 cm, broadly convex to flat, lemon yellow with orange low umbo, yellow patches of universal veil which can wash off in rainy weather, faintly striate margin
Gills – Slightly adnexed to free, cream color, close, fairly broad
Flesh – Pale yellow to orange near center
Stalk – 7 cm by 8 mm pale yellow apex to 2 cm white rather indistinct bulb, cottony pendulous median yellow ring, interior pithy becoming hollow
Spore print – White
Spores – 9-12 x 7-8 microns, entire, oval, non-amyloid
Comments: Found from early August to late October and is rather common nearly every year but never abundant; also found at Whitefish Dunes State Park, and Newport State Park.

Amanita fulva (Amanitaceae) Tawny Grisette

Amanita fulva. A young partly opened cap shows the rich orange-brown color and striate margin.

Grows widely scattered on soil in mixed woods, sometimes in moss
Cap – 3 to 6 cm, conical to broadly convex in age, milk chocolate brown, tacky, striate margin, smooth or with a few thin patches of universal veil
Gills – Nearly free to thinly adnexed, white, broad, close to crowded
Flesh – Medium thick, whitish to cream, no odor
Stalk – 8 to 15 cm, light tan to white, tapers upwards from 12 to 15 mm wide base to 5 to 9 mm apex, Florentine-like striations of medium brown over pale background
Spore print – White
Spores – 9-12 microns, round, entire, non-amyloid
Comments: Formerly known as Amanitopsis vaginata var. fulva; it is very common and fruits from mid August to mid October and can be found at The Ridges Sanctuary, Meridian County Park, Whitefish Dunes State Park, Newport State Park, Mink River Preserve and Washington Island.

Amanita muscaria var. formosa (Amanitaceae) Fly Amanita

Amanita muscaria: is a young unopened cap still heavily covered with the universal veil and shows the pure white stalk. Amanita muscaria: is a mature mushroom with the yellow striate margin and orange on the cap center. It also shows the tapering white stalk with the basal bulb rimmed with rings of universal veil.

Grows gregariously on soil in the old field near spruces
Cap – 3 to 16 cm, broadly convex to flat in age, deep yellow striate margin to orange disk, yellowish to white patches of universal veil
Gills – Free, pale cream, broad, close
Flesh – White to yellowish, thick
Stalk – 12 to 16 cm by 1 to 2 cm, bulb up to 3.5 cm high by 2.5 cm wide; slimy when fresh, white to pale yellow, superior ring
Spore print – White
Spores – 9-12 x 6-9 microns, oval, entire, non-amyloid
Comments: This is a very common species seen annually from late July to mid October. Our variety never has the blood red cap of the normal Amanita muscaria. It is also found at The Ridges Sanctuary, Whitefish Dunes State Park, Newport State Park, Mink River Preserve and Washington Island.

Amanita virosa (Amanitaceae) Destroying Angel

Amanita virosa: A mature specimen shows the large basal bulb with distinct thick edges of the universal veil, a large ring on the stalk and the smooth white cap. Amanita virosa: gives a close view of the pure white gills and pendulous superior ring.

Grows scattered on soil in mixed woods
Cap – 3 to 8 cm, hemispheric to nearly flat in age, dull chalky white, smooth, slightly viscid to dry, not striate
Gills – Free to narrowly attached, white, close, broad
Flesh – White, medium thick, sometimes a pungent disagreeable odor
Stalk – 12 to 17 cm by 1 to 1.5 mm, tapers upward from a distinct bulb which is up to 3.5 cm wide and has an edge like a sac, superior membranous ring, solid to pithy interior, powdery to shaggy surface
Spore print – White
Spores – 7-12 microns, round, entire, amyloid
Comments: This is a fairly common pure white species found from mid August to late October and also seen at Meridian County Park, Mink River Preserve, Newport State Park and Whitefish Dunes State Park.

Apiosporina morbosa (Venturiaceae) Black Knot

Apiosporina morbosa, The dry dull rough black fruiting body totally surrounds the twigs. Apiosporina morbosa

Grows scattered to clustered on living Cherry and Plum species mostly on the dead branches
Fruiting body – Spindle-shaped black rough dry knot-like growths often enclosing entire branch, hard and crusty surface
Spores – 16-22 x 5-6.5 microns, narrowly elliptical, entire, 2-celled
Comments: This parasitic species is found in many parts of the county and can be seen year ‘round. It is also known as Dibotryon morbosa.

Armillaria mellea (Tricholomataceae) Honey Cap

Armillaria mellea, Two half-mature mushrooms show the yellow mealy particles on the cap and the small superior ring on the orange-brown stalks. Armillaria mellea: is a cluster of many mature caps in the typical growth pattern and habitat.

Grows on dead or dying trees and on buried roots of trees
Cap – 3 to 10 (16) cm, hemispheric to flat, light brown to rich deep brown (can be quite variable), granular surface on much of disk, margin incurved at first then uplifted in age, slimy viscid in wet weather, hygrophanous
Gills – Adnate to short decurrent, white to buff, broad, close
Flesh – White, thick, nice odor when fresh
Stalk – 4 to 8 cm by 8 to 20 mm, central, tapers upward, tough, fibrous, solid to pithy, fragile yellowish superior ring
Spore print – white
Spores – 7-11 x 4-6 microns, oval, entire, non-amyloid
Comments: This species is most variable and difficult to identify by the amateur mycologist. It often can grow in huge clusters with the bases of the stalks joined, but it can also grow as single fruiting bodies. It is found in the cold season from September into mid October and has also been seen at Meridian County Park, Mink River Preserve, Newport Park, Peninsula Park, The Ridges Sanctuary, The Clearing Folk School, Whitefish Dunes and Washington Island. It is also called Armillariella mellea and is one of Door County’s most common species.

Atserophora lycoperdoides (Tricholomataceae) Powder Cap

Atserophora lycoperdoides: A freshly growing cluster is shown on a well rotted Russula species

Grows clustered on very well-rotted Russula species, especially the Russula densifolia group
Cap – 1 to 2 cm, hemispheric to broadly convex, pale tan, powdery surface from spores, margin incurved
Gills – Difficult to see due to small and misshapen caps, usually thick and white, sometimes no gills form
Flesh – White, mealy odor when fresh, putrid odor when aged
Stalk – 2 to 4 cm by 4 to 7 mm, central, cylindrical, gray-white apex, gray-tan base, powdery surface
Spore print – White
Spores – 6 x 3 microns, elliptical, entire, non-amyloid
Comments: These small fruiting bodies may be difficult to see as they blend in with the dark forest floor. They are never common and appear mainly in wet years from late August into September. It is also called Nyctalis asterophora.

Bisporella citrina (Leoticaceae) Yellow Fairy Cups

Bisporella citrina, highly magnified. Bisporella citrina

Grows scattered to gregarious on rotting wood in mixed woods
Fruiting body – 2 to 5 mm wide, shallow, brilliant yellow, smooth top fertile surface; no stalk or flesh
Spores – Clear (difficult to obtain) 9-14 x 3-5 microns, elliptical, often becoming 2-celled with oil drops at each end
Comments: This fairly common species grows from early August to mid November and has also been seen at Peninsula Park, Whitefish Dunes, Kangaroo Lake Preserve, Mink River, Newport Park and Rock Island.

Bjerkandera adusta (Polyporaceae) Smoky Polypore

Bjerkandera adusta, close view of the zoned top of the fruiting body Bjerkandera adusta, shows the gray pore surface.

Grows fused to densely overlapping clusters on dead hardwoods
Cap – 2 to 6 cm wide by 2 to 4 cm deep, fan shaped, medium to dark brown concentric furry bands, smooth white margin; no stalk
Pore surface – Rich medium dark gray, 5 to 6 pores per mm, white sterile margin, tubes 1 to 2 mm long
Flesh – White, 1 to 3 mm thick, spongy and soft when fresh
Spore print – White
Spores – 4-5 x 2-3 microns, oval, entire, non-amyloid
Comments: This is a beautiful species when fresh and actively growing. It can be found growing from early September through October and has also been seen at The Clearing Folk School, The Ridges Sanctuary, Potawatomi Park, Mink River, Newport Park and Whitefish Dunes.

Boletus rubinellus (Boletaceae) Purple-red Bolete

Boletus rubinellus, here the top of the cap and the pore surface underneath shows with a mirror as it grows in its normal habitat. Boletus rubinellus. Boletus rubinellus, close view of the pores and the attachment of the tube layer to the stalk.

Grows solitary to scattered on soil or in moss near conifers
Cap – 3 to 6 cm, broadly convex to nearly flat in age, reddish brown disk to yellow tan near margin, fine dark appressed fibers, dry to slightly tacky when wet
Pore layer – Depressed attached to sinuate, rosy to orange brown, pores are 1 mm wide, round to slightly angular near stalk, tubes 4 to 5 mm long
Flesh – Dull yellow, very thick
Stalk – 3 to 6 cm by 8 to 10 mm, central, tapers up from a slightly bulbous base, tan with reddish brown vertical streaks, chrome yellow base and interior, solid to pithy
Spore print – Dark brown
Spores – 10-13 x 3.5-5 microns, spindle-shaped, entire, slightly roughened
Comments: This is a rare species, first discovered in Door County at Toft Point on 10-3-07. It was seen again at Toft Point on 9-15-08 and at Mink River Preserve on 9-16-08.

Cantharellus tubaeformis (Cantharellaceae) Trumpet Chanterelle

Cantharellus tubaeformis, Two fruiting bodies and a bit of moss in which they grew reveal the yellow stalk base and very widely spaced blunt-edged gills. These caps are old and drying at the margins.

Grows scattered in moss and humus or on rotting conifers
Cap – 2 cm, flat to funnel shape, dull tan, widely spaced clumps of fibers on surface, dry, hygrophanous
Gills – Decurrent, tan, very widely spaced and intervenose, blunt edges
Flesh – Pale olive yellow, very thin
Stalk – 2 cm by 5 mm, tan apex, flexuous, chrome yellow base, smooth to finely tomentose near apex, hollow
Spore print – White
Spores – 7-11 x 6-7 microns, nearly round, slightly roughened, non-amyloid
Comments: This species may be more common than reported because it is small and difficult to see. It can be found in September and October and has also been seen at the Logan Creek Preserve and Mink River.

Cantharellula umbonata (Tricholomataceae) Grayling

Cantharellula umbonata, the tops of mature caps. Cantharellula umbonata, view showing the forked gills.

Grows solitary to widely scattered on soil or moss under conifers
Cap – 1 to 3 cm, very broadly convex to flat with small pointed umbo, medium gray, incurved tomentose margin, not hygrophanous, striate nor viscid
Gills – Decurrent, white, close, all forked at least once, narrow
Flesh – Light gray, thick, nice odor
Stalk – 3 to 6 cm by 3 to 7 mm, narrower at base, flexuous, very pale gray, fibrous, pithy with cartilaginous rind
Spore print – White
Spores – 9-13 x 3-5 microns, long-elliptical, entire, amyloid
Comments: This species likes to grow in Haircap Moss and is never abundant. It is easily recognized by the pointed umbo on a usually flat silvery gray cap. It can be found in September and October and has also been seen at Whitefish Dunes State Park.

Clavariadelphus truncatus (Clavariaceae)  Flat-topped Club Coral

Clavariadelphus truncatus – Shows the habitat as it was found. C. truncatus – The wider flat top is brighter yellow than the rest of the fruiting body. C. truncatus – This is the wrinkled spore-bearing surface above the smooth (hidden) stalk base.

Grows single to widely scattered on soil in mixed woods
Fruiting body – 7 to 10cm tall, fertile top portion 6cm long with vertical wrinkles, dull medium yellow, flat top is 2 to 3cm wide, wrinkled, brighter yellow than sides
Basal section – 3 to 4cm long by 2cm wide, gray-tan, smooth
Interior – white to pale yellow, moist, soft, pithy
Spore print – pale buff
Spores – elliptical, non-amyloid, smooth, 8-11x5-7 microns
Found from August to September. Also seen in Ephraim upland woods in 1982; last seen in September 1984!

 

Clavulina cinerea (Clavariaceae) Ashy Coral Mushroom   

Clavulina cinerea – This aging specimen shows the tips that darken as it dries.                    

Grows as single cluster on soil in mixed woods
Fruiting body – 5 to 6cm tall, 3 to 4cm wide at top, ashy gray, tips very pointed and darken with age, each branch is about 2mm wide & hollow
Base – white with many joined branching units
Spore print – white
Spores – fat elliptical, non-amyloid, smooth, 7-9x5-8 microns
Found from August to September.

 

Clitocybe clavipes (Tricholomataceae) Club Foot

Clitocybe clavipes, Left to right shows stages of growth, young mature and over-mature. Clitocybe clavipes, the gills and the long taper of the stalk to the large clavate-bulbous base.

Grows solitary to cespitose or widely scattered on soil in mixed woods
Cap – 3 to 7 cm, nearly flat to funnel shape, margin down-curved then uplifted in age, grayish-brown, dull sheen, smooth to faintly striate, dry
Gills – Adnate to decurrent, pale tan, medium broad, close
Flesh – White to light tan, medium-thick, foul odor in age like cherry or peach pits
Stalk – 3 to 5 cm by 5 to 10mm at apex and 9 to 24 mm at basal bulb, tan to medium brown, smooth, pithy to hollow
Spore print – White
Spores – 6-8 x 3-5 microns, long oval, prominent apiculus, entire
Comments: This is easily identified because of its extreme bulbous base which tapers up to a much narrower apex. It is fairly common but never abundant and can be found from late July to late October. It has also been seen at The Ridges Sanctuary, Whitefish Dunes and Washington Island.

Clitocybe gibba var. maxima (Tricholomataceae) Large Funnel Cap

Clitocybe maxima   Clitocybe-gibba-var.-maxima cross section. Clitocybe-gibba-var.-maxima. Clitocybe-gibba-var.-maxima growth form.

Grows scattered or in large arcs on soil under pines
Cap – 15-21 cm, light tan margin to medium pinkish tan center, smooth, plane to broadly concave
Gills – Adnate to short-decurrent or slightly notched, tan, close to crowded, broad
Flesh – very thick, white, slight acrid odor
Stalk – central, cylindrical, 7 cm x 2.5 cm, medium to dark brown, vertically streaked, very tough and cartilaginous, becoming pithy
Spore print – White
Spores – Elliptical, smooth, non-amyloid, 8-11 x 4.5-5.5 microns
Comments: Last found at Toft Point on 10-2-75.

Clitocybe gigantea (Tricholomataceae) Giant Clitocybe

Clitocybe maxima

Grows solitary or in large fairy rings on soil in open mixed woods
Cap – 10 to 40 cm, broadly convex to flat, white to buff, pinkish-tan in the maxima group of C. gibba
Gills – Decurrent, crowded, white to buff
Flesh – White
Stalk – 3 to 10 cm by 2 to 4.5 cm, white, solid, dry
Spore print – White
Spores – 6-8 x 3-4.5 microns, elliptical, entire, weakly amyloid
Edibility – Not recommended
Comments: This species has rarely been seen at Toft Point. The only records are from 10-2-75 with a Clearing class and September 1976 with a Clearing class. No details of the findings were noted. We have no other records in Door County. Some mycologists put it in the genus Leucopaxillus due to its weakly amyloid spores.

Clitocybe nuda (Tricholomataceae) Blewit

Clitocybe nuda, This cap was malformed as it grew next to a small tree sapling Clitocybe nuda, shows the fat stalk and overall violet hues. Clitocybe nuda, shows the close to crowded gills and their sinuate attachment to the stalk.

Grows scattered to gregarious and in fairy rings on soil in mixed woods
Cap – 3 to 12 cm, hemispheric to broadly convex to nearly flat in age, light pinkish-purple to light tan, margin incurved at first to uplifted in age, smooth to minutely tomentose, slightly viscid when fresh
Gills – Sinuate, pinkish-tan to pale violet, close to crowded, narrow
Flesh – Pale violet, thick, nice odor
Stalk – 3.5 to 6 cm by 1.5 to 2.2 cm apex and 2 to 4.5 cm bulbous base, light violet, striate, solid
Spore print – Pinkish-buff
Spores – 5-8 x 3-5 microns, elliptical, minutely roughened
Comments: This species is not very common being seen every few years from late July to mid October. It has also been seen at Newport Park and Whitefish Dunes.

Collybia acervata (Tricholomataceae) Clustered Collybia

Collybia acervata, Clustered growth habit. Collybia acervata, is a closer view of the white gills and hairy stalk bases.

Grows densely clustered low on well rotted conifers
Cap – 2-3.5 cm, very broadly convex, light to medium tan, smooth, not striate or viscid
Gills – Adnexed, pale tan, close, broad
Flesh – Orange-tan, thin
Stalk – 7 to 9 cm by 3 to 5 mm, light tan to medium brown, central but curving, terete, smooth but some have tufts of hairs at base, cartilaginous, pithy to hollow
Spore print – White
Spores – 6-7.5 x 2.5-3 microns, entire, elliptical, non-amyloid
Comments: This species is now called Gymnopus acervatus by some authors. It has only been seen once at Toft Point on 10-3-2007 and not recorded at any other Door County location.

Collybia butyracea (Tricholomataceae) Buttery Collybia

Collybia butyracea Collybia butyracea. Collybia butyracea, view of the white gills with their adnexed attachment.
Grows solitary to widely scattered on soil in mixed woods
Cap – 2.5 to 3.7 cm, very broadly convex, medium orange-brown, hygrophanous, slightly striate, smooth
Gills – Adnate-emarginate to sinuate, white to pale buff, close to crowded, broad, eroded to faintly ragged edges
Flesh – Pale to medium tan, medium-thick
Stalk – 3 to 5 cm by 3 to 15 mm, light tan, tapers upward, central, terete, smooth, dry, pithy to hollow
Spore print – White to pale buff
Spores – 5-8 x 3-4 microns, oval, entire, dextrinoid
Comments: This species can look like so many other brown mushrooms. It is never abundant and has only been recorded at Toft Point on 10-3-2007. It has also been seen at Newport State Park and Whitefish Dunes.

Coltricia perennis (Polyporaceae) Tan Fairy Stool

Coltricia perennis, is a habitat view of two mature mushrooms. Coltricia perennis, a cap can have several partly formed caps growing on top. Coltricia perennis, pore surface and thick orange-brown stalk.

Grows scattered on soil under conifers
Cap – 3 to 12 cm, concave to funnel shape, zonate, dry velvety concentric bands of medium orange brown, paler margin, some funnels have half-circle caps growing inside, hygrophanous
Pore surface – Slightly decurrent, gray-tan to medium gray brown, very pale tan at margin, pores 1 to 2 per mm, not round, irregular shape, tubes 1 to 3 mm long
Flesh – Brown, thin, zoned, dry, tough
Stalk – 2 to 3 cm by 2 to 3 mm, medium yellow brown to rich cinnamon brown, soft, dry, tomentose
Spore print – Pale brown; difficult to get spores to drop.
Spores – 6.5-8.5 x 3.5-5 microns, oval, entire
Comments: This uncommon species grows from early August to late September. It has also been seen at Newport Park and Whitefish Dunes State Park.

Coprinus micaceus (Coprinaceae) Mica Ink Cap

Coprinus micaceus, o mature mushrooms. Coprinus micaceus, several younger mushrooms with the typical hollow stalk and crowded gills starting to darken with spore development.

Grows scattered to clustered on humus and rotting wood
Cap – 1.5 to 3 cm tall and 1 to 1.5 cm wide, hemispheric to bell-shaped, medium to deep tan, sulcate-striate, dry, graying in age
Gills – Adnexed to free, tan when young, blackening in age, close to crowded, broad
Flesh – Tan, very thin
Stalk – 4 to 12 cm by 3 to 8 mm, white to pale tan, smooth, hollow
Spore print – Dark brown to black
Spores – 7-11 x 4-6 microns, elliptical, entire
Comments: This rather common species grows from early July to early October. It is also seen at the Logan Creek Preserve, Newport Park, The Rushes Kangaroo Lake trails and Whitefish Dunes.

Cortinarius alboviolaceus (Cortinariaceae) Silvery-violet Cort

Cortinarius alboviolaceus. Cortinarius alboviolaceus, a bisected young mushroom showing the violet gills and spider-web-like partial veil at the lower edge of the gills. Cortinarius alboviolaceus, the underside of a maturing mushroom showing very broad gills starting to turn brown with spore development. Cortinarius alboviolaceus, view of the partial veil, called a cortina, before the cap opens completely.

Grows scattered on soil in mixed hemlock and beech woods
Cap – 2 to 6 cm, hemispheric to broadly convex, dull light violet, incurved margin, smooth, dry
Gills – Adnexed to Adnate, medium violet when young, close to sub-distant, medium broad
Flesh – Very pale violet, thick
Stalk – 5 cm by 1.3 cm, pale tan-violet, matted vertical hairs, solid to pithy, slightly enlarged base
Spore print – Medium brown
Spores – 6-9 x 4.5-6 microns, pip-shaped, tuberculate, slightly roughened
Comments: This is rare at Toft Point, reported only once in October 1983 by Veronica Pavlat. It can be found from September to early October and has also been seen at The Mink River Preserve.

Cortinarius cinnamomeus (Cortinariaceae) Common Cort

Cortinarius cinnamomeus. Cortinarius alboviolaceus, a bisected young mushroom showing the violet gills and spider-web-like partial veil at the lower edge of the gills. Cortinarius alboviolaceus, the underside of a maturing mushroom showing very broad gills starting to turn brown with spore development.

Grows scattered on soil or in moss under conifers
Cap – 4-5 cm, very broadly convex to plane with a darker pointed umbo, orange-brown, satin smooth, striate margin, hygrophanous
Gills – Adnate to sinuate, very broad, close to sub-distant, entire-edged
Flesh – Medium-thin, medium brown, mild nice odor
Stalk – Central, cylindrical to slightly flexed, 8-9 cm x 5-9 mm, tan, fibrous-striate, satin sheen, pithy becoming hollow
Spore print – Rusty Brown
Spores – Elliptical, roughened to slightly tuberculate, 7-10(12) x 4.5-5(6) microns
Comments: Found from late August to early November; last seen in 1979!

Craterellus cornucopoides (Cantharellaceae) Horn of Plenty

Craterellus cornucopeoides, a group in various stages of growth in normal habitat.

Grows solitary to scattered or in loose groups on soil in mixed woods
Cap – 1 to 7 cm wide and 3 to 10 cm tall, deep funnel, gray to black fading to gray-brown, smooth to minutely scaly
Gills – None, fertile surface on underside of funnel is smooth to lightly veined or wrinkled, lighter gray than top of cap
Flesh – Gray to black and very thin, pleasant odor
Stalk – Part of base of funnel, very narrow and black
Spore print – White to buff
Spores – 8-11 x 5-7 microns, elliptical, entire, non-amyloid
Comments: This is quite rare and difficult to find, blending in with the dark forest floor. It has thus had few records, the most recent being October 1983 by Veronica Pavlat.

Crinipellis campanella (Tricholomataceae)   no common name

Crinipellis campanella. Crinipellis campanella. Crinipellis campanella.

Grows scattered on soil or woody debris under conifers
Cap – 8 mm, broadly convex, brown fading to tan with dark brown umbilicate center, fine dark hairs over all (seen with a 10 X lens), hairy margin, cap is dextrinoid with Melzer’s Reagent
Gills – Adnexed to nearly free, pale tan, close (difficult to see due to tiny size)
Flesh – too tiny to see
Stalk – Central, cylindrical, 5 cm x .5mm (1/2 mm), dark gray, fine whitish hairs over all
Spore print – White
Spores – Elliptical, non-amyloid, smooth, 6.75-8 x 3-4 microns
Comments: found growing on an Arborvitae (Cedar) twig in September near east end of big field; area is now under large fallen Eastern Hemlock

Cyptotrama asprata (Tricholomataceae)   Golden Scruffy Collybia

Cyptotrama asprata – Here is one mushroom with a granular and wrinkled top. C. asprata – The stalk also has a granular surface. You can see the broad, sub-distant gills. C. asprata – This cap is granular but only slightly wrinkled.

Grows single to widely scattered on dead hardwood
Cap – 1.5 to 2.5cm, very broadly convex, egg-yolk yellow, dry, scurfy granular, raised wrinkled surface
Gills – adnate to short-decurrent, sub-distant, pale yellow to white, very broad
Flesh – thin, white to pale yellow
Stalk – central to slightly off-center, cylindrical, scurfy-scaly, concolor with cap, tough, solid to pithy
Spore print – white

Cystoderma amianthinum (Tricholomataceae) Pungent Cystoderma

Cystoderma amianthinum, top of the cap shows a few wrinkles and the fringed margin with bits of the partial veil. Cystoderma amianthinum, shows the thick ragged-edged gills and adnate attachment to the stalk.

Grows scattered on soil under conifers
Cap – 2 to 3.5 cm, broadly convex to flat, disk light orange-brown with low umbo, margin is yellow-tan, faintly radially wrinkled, granular texture, margin sometimes adorned with veil remnants, not hygrophanous or viscid
Gills – Adnate or adnexed to sinuate, white, broad, close to crowded, edged eroded and unevenly wavy
Flesh – Dull medium yellow-tan, thick at center only
Stalk – 3 to 7 cm by 3 to 6 mm, tapers downward to a small bulb, central, cylindrical, medium yellow-brown, apex light tan pruinose above evanescent ring, scurfy-scaly below ring, pithy to hollow
Spore print – White
Spores – 5-7.5 x 3-4.5 microns, elliptical, entire, amyloid
Comments: This mushroom is beautiful and fun to examine with a ten-power hand lens. It is never abundant being seen only a few times at Toft Point from mid September to mid October. It has also been seen at Whitefish Dunes.

Cystoderma fallax (Tricholomataceae) Common Conifer Cystoderma

Cystoderma fallax, note the granular texture of the cap and fringed margin. Cystoderma fallax, rough stalk surface below the ring and the smooth surface above it.

Grows scattered on soil in conifer woods
Cap – 3.5 cm, broadly convex, low umbo, orange-brown, paler margin, radially wrinkled (best seen with 10 X lens)
Gills – Sinuate, pale orange-tan, very broad, close to crowded
Flesh – Light orange, medium-thick, nice odor
Stalk – 3 to 4 cm by 4 mm, medium-brown, central, cylindrical, median to superior flaring ring, slightly granular surface below ring
Spore print – White
Spores – 4-5 x 3-3.75 microns, oval, entire, amyloid
Comments: this is a rare species being seen only once at Toft Point on 10-20-06 and one other time near Cana Island on 9-22-85.