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Ducks fly over rough water on the Bay of Green Bay.

Biodiversity of Macrofungi in Northern Door County, WI

Species Descriptions D - H

Daldinia concentrica (Xylariaceae) Crampball; Carbon Balls

Daldinia concentrica – A cross-section reveals the charcoal-like inside with what appear to be annual rings like in a tree. D. concentrica – The fruiting body on the left has a smooth surface and that on the left is rougher. D. concentrica – Here is the typical growth habit.

Grows gregariously on dead, fallen hardwoods, especially American Beech trees
Fruiting body – 2 to 2.5cm wide, 1.4cm thick, deep chocolate brown, finely powdered surface as seen with 10 X lens, dry, hard
Interior – black, brittle, composed of what appear to be concentric rings like tree growth rings
Spore print – black, but very difficult to obtain (took 2 days wrapped in a waxed bag to see spores, but not enough to examine with a microscope)
Comments: Found in late summer through fall; also seen at Whitefish Dunes State Park

Dacrymyces palmatus (Dacrymycetaceae) Orange Witch’s Butter

Dacrymyces palmatus, growth pattern on fallen log. Dacrymyces palmatus, view showing their jelly-like texture.

Grows scattered to gregarious on dead conifers
Fruiting body – 1 to 3 cm wide, jelly soft when fresh, wrinkled, brain-like, red-orange and slightly translucent, hard when aged, tiny white basal attachment
Spores – Yellow, 16-23 x 6-8 microns, cylindrical to sausage shape, entire, becoming 8 to 10 celled
Comments: This fairly common species in conifer woods grows from late July to early October. It has also been seen at Mink River Preserve, Newport Park, the Ridges Sanctuary, Whitefish Dunes State Park and Peninsula Park.

Dentinum repandum (Hydnaceae) Hedgehog Mushroom

Dentinum repandum, view showing the teeth and tapering stalk. Dentinum repandum, the teeth and stalk surface and sometimes cespitose growth.
Grows solitary to scattered on soil in mixed woods
Cap – 2 to 5 cm, convex to nearly plane, medium orange to tan, dry, dull, no sheen, margin inrolled at first then wavy and upturned in age
Teeth – Decurrent, 3 to 9 mm long, whitish to pale tan, soft, slender, brittle
Flesh – White to yellowish, thick, mild odor
Stalk – 3 to 8 cm by 1 to 2 cm, central to off-center, concolor with cap
Spore print – White
Spores – 6.5 -9 x 5.5-8 microns, nearly round, entire
Comments: This species is infrequently found and they are usually small. It can be found growing from mid August to early October and has also been seen at Mink River, Newport Park, Ridges Sanctuary, Logan Creek and Washington Island.

Entoloma lividum (Entolomataceae)  Lead Poisoner

Entoloma lividum – This misshapen cap may have been squeezed between small twigs. E. lividum – Here are the broad gills with pink spores at the lower edges of some.

Grows single to scattered on soil in mixed woods
Cap – 3 to 8cm, broadly convex to plane, tan to medium-brown, smooth, slightly striate, hygrophanous
Gills – sinuate to adnexed, very pale tan to pinkish in age, close, broad
Flesh – white, thick in center only, putrid odor when cut
Stalk – central, cylindrical, 4 to 7cm by 7 to 12mm, smooth to finely fibrous-striate, white to very pale gray, pithy to hollow
Spore print – dull rose pink
Spores – angular but rounded, smooth, 7-9x6-7.5 microns
Also known as Entoloma sinuatum
Found in late summer to fall; also seen at the Ridges Sanctuary, Whitefish Dunes State Park and Rock Island State Park.

Fomes fomentarius (Polyporaceae) Horse’s Hoof

Fomes fomentarius, older fruiting bodies in their normal habitat, rotting logs. Fomes fomentarius, shows two years of growth, the older top gray fruiting body and the younger than one below. Fomes fomentarius, view showing the tiny round pores on the underside of an actively growing fruiting body.

Grows solitary to scattered on standing or fallen birch trees and other hardwoods
Cap – 6 to 8 cm wide by 3 to 5 cm deep and 3 to 4 cm thick, hoof shape, rich tan with darker narrow concentric bands when fresh, dry, smooth to minutely felty when seen through a 10 X lens, caps fade to light gray in age and can stay on trees for several years; no stalk
Pore surface – Gray tan, round, 3 per mm, tubes up to 1.5 cm long, single layer
Flesh – Medium orange brown, thin compared to the tube length, firm
Spore print – White, but very difficult to obtain
Spores – 15-20 x 4.5-7 microns, cylindrical, entire
Comments: The Horse’s Hoof is one of the most common species in our area and can be found actively growing during the warm late summer to early fall. It has been seen at Mink River, Newport Park, Kangaroo Lake Preserve, The Clearing Folk School, Ridges Sanctuary, Peninsula Park, Logan Creek, Potawatomi Park, Whitefish Dunes and Rock Island. It can be seen in all seasons as it is perennial and will stay on trees for several years.

Fomitopsis pinacola (Polyporaceae) Red-banded Conk

Fomitopsis pinacola, top view. Fomitopsis pinacola, the underside of a fresh fruiting body.

Grows solitary to scattered on dead or dying conifers
Cap – 10 to 16 cm wide by 8 cm deep, semicircle to fan shaped, gray center, narrow black band next, red outer band, thickened rounded outer whitish margin, crusty surface; no stalk
Pore surface – White, angular, 3 to 5 per mm, bruising yellow, tubes 3 to 5 mm long, distinct layers, turn brown with age
Flesh – White to pinkish buff when young, very tough and woody, pale brown in age
Spore print – White to pale yellow
Spores – 5-8 x 3.5-5 microns, elliptical, entire
Comments: This species had only been reported at Toft Point for many years before finding it at the Logan Creek Preserve in October 2010. It is perennial and can be seen in all seasons.

Ganoderma tsugae (Polyporaceae) Hemlock Polypore    

Ganoderma tsugae, Several fresh actively growing fruiting bodies. Ganoderma tsugae, shows how they look in winter. These can stay on a tree for more than a year before they too begin to decay. Ganoderma tsugae, view of the top of the cap. It is dry but appears varnished. Ganoderma tsugae, side view of an actively growing fruiting body.

Grows solitary to scattered on dead hemlock trees
Cap – 5 to 30 cm wide, fan shape to kidney shape, red brown shiny and polished or varnished looking when actively growing, zoned and furrowed, fades a bit and becomes dull as it ages
Pore surface – White when fresh turning brown with age, 4 to 6 pores per mm, round to angular, tubes 3 to 10mm long
Flesh – White, 5mm to 3 cm thick
Stalk – (when present) Lateral, 2 to 10 cm long by 1 to 4 cm thick, red varnished like cap, smooth surface
Spore print – Brown
Spores – 9-11 x 6-8 microns, elliptical, blunt at one end, double-walled
Comments: This is uncommon being seen only in hemlock woods, actively grows from mid summer to September, but is perennial and can be seen in all seasons. It has also been seen at Whitefish Dunes Park.

Geastrum triplex (Geastraceae) Saucered Earthstar

Geastrum triplex, Two actively growing fruiting bodies after the outer rind has split and peeled back to form the pedestal. Geastrum triplex, the aperture and fine black lines surrounding it. Geastrum triplex, shows the top with a small indented halo around the opening.

Grows solitary to scattered on humus under hardwoods
Fruiting body – 5 cm diameter with rays extended, 2 cm wide ball on saucer-like plate attached to center of extended rays, aperture has black fibers radiating around it and is ringed with a halo about 8 mm in diameter
Spores – Black, 3.75-4.5 microns, round, spiny
Comments: This fairly common species grows from early September to mid October and has also been seen at the Bjorklunden property, Death’s Door Bluff County Park, Rock Island and Whitefish Dunes State Park.

Gloeophyllum sepiarium (Polyporaceae) Rusty-gilled Polypore

Gloeophyllum saepiarium, a group of actively growing fruiting bodies showing the concentric bands and furry texture of one band on the cap. Gloeophyllum saepiarium, the underside is more gill-like than typical polypores.

Grows solitary or grouped on dead conifers
Cap – 3 to 10 cm wide by 2 to 4 cm deep, semicircle to fan shaped, concentric bands, outer band rich orange and pitted, next two bands slightly duller orange and appressed-furry, inner two bands deep brown and wider than others; no stalk
Pore surface – Radiating light to medium orange brown ragged-edged gills, 4 mm deep by 1 mm apart, firm
Flesh – Dark rust similar to two inner bands on cap, 3 mm thick, soaks up water like a sponge
Spore print – White
Spores – 7-11 x 3-4 microns, clear, elliptical to sausage shape, entire
Comments: This fairly common species is found growing from early August to late October. It has also been seen at The Ridges Sanctuary, Whitefish Dunes and far southeast Door County near Lake Michigan.

Gomphidius glutinosus (Gomphidiaceae)  Slimy Gomphidius   

      

Grows scattered on soil in beds of Reindeer Moss Lichen (Cladonia rangiferina)
Cap – 3 to 5cm, broadly convex to nearly plane, flesh colored but not too pink, smooth, straight margin, tacky to viscid in wet weather
Gills – decurrent, close to sub-distant, pale gray in youth to black in age, broad, thick, even-edged
Flesh – pale pink-tan, thick, no odor
Stalk – central, cylindrical, 4 to 5cm by 7 to 10mm, tapers downward, small superior ring of raised fibers darkened by falling spores, apex white above ring, base bright yellow on lower half, fibrous-striate, tough, solid
Spore print – black
Spores – elliptical, smooth, 15-20x5-7.5 microns
New to Door County, found at Toft Point on September 14, 2013

Gymnopilus liquiritiae (Cortinariaceae) no common name

Gymnopilus liquiritiae.

Grows clustered on fallen or cut conifer logs
Cap – 1.5-3 cm, very broadly convex, orange-brown, hygrophanous, finely tomentose with flat fibers, incurved margin when young
Gills – Adnate to slightly sinuate, light orange-brown, close, very broad
Flesh – Medium-thick, yellow-tan, nice odor
Stalk – Central to off-center, 1.5-2.2 cm x 3-5 mm, light brown, smooth, pithy to hollow, not tough
Spore print – Rusty brown
Spores – Oval, tuberculate, average size is 9 x 6 microns
Comments: found along main road into Toft Point in October.

Gyromitra esculenta (Helvellaceae) False Morel

Gyromitra esculenta, cross section. Gyromitra esculenta Gyromitra esculenta

Grows single to scattered on soil in conifer and mixed woods
Cap – 7-9 cm tall and 7-10 cm wide, Wrinkled unevenly, medium-dark milk chocolate brown on tom and lighter tan-brown on lower part of cap, smooth surface, not hairy.
Stalk – 5 cm x 2-3 cm wide, smooth but dented in parts, medium tan, interior is chalky pale tan and is part solid and part hollow.
Flesh -- brittle
Spore print -- clear
Spores – Elliptical, smooth, non-amyloid, 15-20 x 9-11 microns
Comments: Found in open shrubby wooded areas not far from Mud Bay usually in May. 

Gyromitra fastigiata (Helvellaceae) Thick-stalked False Morel

Gyromitra fastigiata, one actively growing fruiting body at ground level.

Grows solitary to scattered on soil under hardwoods and in open woods
Cap – 3 to 4 cm tall by 4 to 6 cm wide, caramel to dark brown, brain-like lobes and irregular folds, no pits as in the true morel
Flesh – partly hollow and partly solid inside, tan
Stalk – 4 cm tall by 3 to 4 cm wide, white, often terete, interior partly solid and partly hollow
Spores – Clear, 30-38 x 11-13.5 microns, spindle-shaped with one well-developed knob on each end and one large oil drop inside
Comments: Grows in May and has also been seen at Whitefish Dunes State Park.

Gyromitra infula (Helvellaceae) Hooded False Morel

Gyromitra infula.

Grows solitary to scattered on humus or on well-rotted logs in mixed woods
Cap – 4 to 8 cm tall by 3 to 7 cm wide, saddle shaped or lobed, incurved edge, red brown to dark brown or yellow brown, smooth, not wrinkled or brain-like
Flesh – Thin and brittle
Stalk – 3 to 4 cm tall by 1 to 2.5 cm wide, light tan, tapers upward, smooth, not chambered nor ribbed
Spores – Clear, 15-22 x 6-9 microns, broadly elliptical, entire, two oil drops inside
Comments: It grows from mid September to early October and has also been seen at the Mink River Preserve and Newport Park.

Hebeloma mesophaeum (Cortinariaceae) Veiled Hebeloma

mesophaeum. mesophaeum.

Grows scattered to gregarious on soil and in grass under conifers
Cap – 2-8 cm, hemispheric to very broadly convex, medium brown center and tan margin, smooth to slightly pruinose, slightly tacky, young cap has cortina-like veil
Gills – Adnexed, tan, close, broad, margins are white-edged
Flesh – Medium-thick, medium-brown, mild nice odor
Stalk – Central, cylindrical, 4-7 cm x 3-8 mm, shiny, tan, tough, fibrous-striate, white powdery apex, dark brown base, bits of veil on surface, pithy to hollow
Spore print – Light brown
Spores – Football shape, entire but roughened, no apical pore, 9-11 x 4-6 microns
Comments: found in October to early November

Helvella crispa (Helvellaceae) Fluted White Elfin Saddle

Helvella crispa, shows the saddle-like top and twisting fluted stalk. Helvella crispa, various growth forms in habitat. Helvella crispa, a cross-section of the fluted stalk.

Grows solitary to scattered on soil in mixed woods
Cap – 4 cm tall by 3 to 4 cm wide, saddle shaped to lobed, pale tan, margin inrolled at first becoming flared and wavy in age, sterile undersurface scurfy to finely hairy
Flesh – Thin and brittle
Stalk – 5 cm tall by 12 to 18 mm wide, concolor, deeply ribbed and fluted, equal or tapering upward, chambered in cross-section
Spores – White to clear, 17-22 x 13-16 microns, large oval, entire
Comments: This uncommon species grows from early September to late October and has also been seen at Newport Park and Whitefish Dunes State Park. This is the first wild mushroom I ever photographed at Toft Point in October 1971.

Hygrocybe autoconica (Hygrophoraceae) Acute Conic Waxy Cap

Hygrocybe autoconica, single half-grown mushroom.

Grows scattered on soil in mixed woods
Cap – 3 to 4 cm, conic with a definite point, orange-yellow, smooth, sometimes with a radially scalloped uplifted margin, color fades in age but never blackens
Gills – Adnexed to nearly free, pale yellow, broad, close, gill tissue parallel
Flesh – Yellow, thin, waxy
Stalk – 5 to 6 cm by 5 to 7 mm, central, cylindrical, slightly striate, hollow
Spore print – White
Spores – 9-14 x 6-8 microns, oval, entire
Comments: This small waxy cap can be confused with Hygrocybe conica, but does not blacken with handling or in age. It grows from early August to mid October but is not very common and has also been found at the Mud Lake State Wildlife Area, Newport State Park, Logan Creek Preserve, the Ridges Sanctuary and Whitefish Dunes State Park.

Hygrocybe cantharellus (Hygrophoraceae) Chanterelle Waxy Cap

Hygrocybe cantharelus, a single half-grown mushroom with its powdered cap surface and widely-spaced gills. Hygrocybe cantharelus, two mature fruiting bodies.

Grows widely scattered on soil in mixed woods
Cap – 1 to 2.5 cm, bright orange, broadly convex to concave in age, dry to slightly powdery surface
Gills – Decurrent, orange, broad, close
Flesh – Chrome yellow, thin
Stalk – 3.5 to 7 cm by 3 to 5 mm, bright orange like cap, central, cylindrical, smooth, hollow
Spore print – White
Spores – 7-11 x 4-7 microns, oval, entire, non-amyloid
Comments: This is a gorgeous small mushroom with beautiful color and shape but is never abundant. It is found from mid July to early October and also seen at Meridian County Park, Mink River Preserve, The Ridges Sanctuary and Whitefish Dunes State Park.

Hygrocybe conica (Hygrophoraceae) Witch’s Hat

Hygrocybe conica, shows the blackening on the older mushroom at the left.

Grows single to widely scattered on soil in mixed woods
Cap – 2 to 4 cm, conic and pointed to broadly conic, usually retaining the pointed umbo, deep red-orange, smooth, turning black with age or bruising
Gills – Adnexed to nearly free, broad, thick and waxy, yellowish to white, blackening in age            
Flesh – Yellow, thin, waxy and blackening with age or bruising
Stalk – 6 to 8 cm by 4 to 12 mm, brilliant yellow-orange with white base, vertically striate, bruising black, hollow
Spore print – White
Spores – 9-11 x 4-7 microns, oblong, entire, non-amyloid
Edibility – Too small and flavorless
Comments: This distinctive mushroom is easily recognized by its tendency to turn black with handling or in age. It is fairly common from mid July to late September and can also be found at The Ridges Sanctuary, Mink River Preserve and Newport State Park.

Hygrocybe marginata (Hygrophoraceae)  Orange-gilled Waxy Cap     

Hygrocybe marginata – The larger bright yellow-orange cap has a broad rounded yellow umbo. H. marginata – Brilliant orange gills retain their color even as the cap dries and fades.

Grows scattered to gregariously on soil in woods
Cap – 1 to 3.5cm, broadly conic to convex, bright orange with darker orange broad umbo, smooth, slightly tacky, hygrophanous
Gills – adnate to sinuate, brilliant orange, sub-distant, broad, sometimes slightly intervenose; gills remain bright orange even as the cap dries and fades
Flesh – thin, pale yellow
Spore print – white
Spores – elliptical, smooth, non-amyloid, 6-9x4-6 microns
Found from mid-summer to fall; also seen at Newport State Park, Whitefish Dunes State Park and Rock Island State Park

Hygrocybe miniata (Hygrophoraceae) Miniature Waxy Cap

Hygrocybe miniata. Hygrocybe miniata, a top view of the deep red-orange color of two mature convex caps. Hygrocybe miniata, young specimens.

Grows scattered to gregarious on soil, grass or moss
Cap – 1 to 3.5 cm, hemispheric to broadly convex, red to deep orange-red fading to orange in age, center sometimes concave in age, finely striate margins, smooth to finely scaly
Gills – Short-decurrent, orange, sub-distant, broad
Flesh – White to pale orange-yellow, thin
Stalk – 3 to 7 cm by 3 to 9 mm, terete in cross-section, deep orange apex, narrower white base, smooth, hollow
Spore print – White
Spores – 7-10 x 3.5-5.5 microns, elliptical to fat oval, entire, non-amyloid
Comments: This fairly common waxy cap is easy to recognize in the field because of its deep orange gills and dark red cap when fresh. It can be found from late July to early November in warm autumns and has also been seen at the Ridges Sanctuary, Whitefish Dunes State Park, Peninsula State Park and Rock Island.

Hygrocybe psittacina (Hygrophoraceae) Parrot Waxy Cap

Hygrocybe psittacina, shows the green striate cap of a nearly mature fruiting body.

Grows solitary to widely scattered on soil in mixed woods
Cap – 1 to 2.5 cm, deep olive green when very fresh fading to deep yellow in age, bell-shaped to broadly convex, viscid, slightly striate margin
Gills – Thinly decurrent, similar to cap color, sub-distant, moderately broad, thick and waxy
Flesh – Thin, waxy, Concolor
Stalk – 2 to 5 cm by 3 to 4 mm, central, viscid, concolor, tapers upward, hollow
Spore print – White
Spores – 7 x 5 microns, sub-globose to short elliptical, entire
Comments: This species is another easy one to recognize due to its unusual green color and small size. It can be found from mid July to late October and has also been seen at Meridian County Park, Peninsula State Park, Mink River Preserve and The Ridges Sanctuary. It is not common at Toft Point.

Hygrophoropsis aurantiaca (Paxilaceae) False Chanterelle

Hygrophoropsis aurantiaca, fresh mushroom shows the gills forking repeatedly. Hygrophoropsis aurantiaca, cross section. Hygrophoropsis aurantiaca, several over-mature fruiting bodies showing how they can darken with age.

Grows scattered on soil, often in moss, under conifers
Cap – 3 to 6 cm, very broadly convex to flat to funnel-shape in age, deep orange to orange-brown disk, bright yellow-orange margin, turns darker brown when aged, smooth
Gills – Decurrent, brilliant orange, blunt-edged, close, forked repeatedly, broad
Flesh – Dull orange-brown, medium-thick
Stalk – 3.5 to 5 cm by 5 to 9 mm, medium dark brown, widening downward, smooth, pithy to hollow
Spore print – White to buff
Spores – 5-8 x 3-4.5 microns, elliptical, entire, often dextrinoid
Comments: This is one of only a few gilled mushrooms with all gills forked repeatedly. It can be found from late August to mid October and has also been seen at Newport State Park, The Ridges Sanctuary and Whitefish Dunes.

Hygrophorus eburneus (Hygrophoraceae) Ivory Waxy Cap

Hygrophorus eburneus, Slightly aged convex white caps in their habitat. Hygrophorus eburneus, white slightly decurrent gills. Hygrophorus eburneus, view of white thick flesh and broad gills. Hygrophorus eburneus, fresh young specimen with a viscid cap surface.

Grows solitary to widely scattered on soil in mixed woods
Cap – 1.5 to 4.5 cm, broadly convex with incurved margin when fresh to flat in age, pure white, viscid to glutinous, non-striate margin, disk may be light yellow in age and margin uplifts
Gills – Adnate to slightly decurrent, white, medium broad, sub-distant
Flesh – White, medium-thick, no odor           
Stalk – 3 to 8 cm by 5 to 9 mm at apex to 2 to 5 mm at base, apex white and dotted with beads of moisture, base narrow and smooth-striate, viscid, hollow
Spore print – White
Spores – 6-10 x 4.5-7 microns, elliptical, entire, non-amyloid
Comments: This shining white waxy cap is easy to identify in the field due to its very slimy cap and stalk. Sometimes it is so heavily viscid that it is difficult to handle. It can be found from late August to late October, but never abundant, and has also been seen at The Clearing Folk School, Meridian County Park, Mink River Preserve, Newport Park, Kangaroo Lake TNC Preserve, Rock Island and Whitefish Dunes.

Hygrophorus fuscoalbus (Hygrophoraceae) no common name

Hygrophorus fuscualbus. Hygrophorus fuscualbus, view of top of cap. Hygrophorus fuscualbus, young specimen showing gills.

Grows scattered on soil under conifers
Cap – 2-6 cm, broadly convex to nearly plane with a small umbo, gray-brown, darker center, viscid, smooth
Gills – Short-decurrent, pure white, broad, close to sub-distant
Flesh – White, thick, no odor
Stalk – Central, cylindrical, curved in age, 5-7 cm x 5-10 mm, white, finely powdered, not viscid, pithy to hollow
Spore print – White
Spores – Oval to short elliptical, smooth, non-amyloid, 9-11 x 6-7.5 microns
Comments: Found in October to early November