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Ducks fly over rough water on the Bay of Green Bay.

Biodiversity of Macrofungi in Northern Door County, WI

Species Descriptions I - O

Inocybe cookei (Cortinariaceae) Fragrant Inocybe    

Inocybe cookei – This fibrous umbonate cap is typical of many Inocybe species, often called Fiber Heads.

Grows single to scattered on soil in mixed woods
Cap – 1.5 to 3cm, very broadly convex to plane with a prominent pointed umbo, milk chocolate brown, matted long fibers, margin splits in age, dry
Gills – adnexed to slightly sinuate, light gray-tan to medium brown, close to crowded, edges are white and finely serrate
Flesh – white to pale tan, thin
Stalk – central, cylindrical, 3 to 5cm by 3 to 5mm, light to medium tan, fibrous, pithy to hollow
Spore print – milk chocolate brown
Spores – elliptical, smooth, 7-11x4-7 microns
Found July to September; also seen at the Mink River Preserve                      

Inonotus tomentosus (Polyporaceae) Wooly Velvet Polypore

Inonotus tomentosus – This aging fruiting body has turned darker brown. I. tomentosus – This species often grows multiple caps on top of each other. I. tomentosus – A cross-section reveals the thick brown flesh and the long tubes. I. tomentosus – A fresh fruiting body has a rounded yellow cap margin.

Grows on ground or well-rotted wood in mixed woods
Cap – 8 to 18cm wide, broad shallow funnel up to 9cm tall, deep yellow-brown to medium-dark chocolate brown, concentric rings of color, tomentose, paler undulating margin
Pore surface – decurrent, light to medium tan, pores 3 to 4 per mm
Tubes – 2 to 5 mm deep, single layer
Flesh – medium-thick, medium brown, 3 to 5mm thick, satiny appearance
Stalk – central, cylindrical, 3 to 4cm tall by 2 to 5cm wide, dark brown, tomentose, tough, solid
Spore print – white
Spores – elliptical, smooth, 5-7x3.5-4.5 microns
Found in fall; also seen at Newport State Park

Laccaria laccata (Tricholomataceae) Common Laccaria

Laccaria laccata, a young maturing fruiting body. Laccaria laccata – Here is an example of the gregarious manner of growth of this species. L. laccata – The very broad gills show well on the left mushroom. L. laccata – These caps had concave tops with many of them becoming funnel-like.

Grows solitary to scattered on soil in mixed woods
Cap – 1.5 to 3 cm, convex, medium orange-brown, smooth, thin eroded striate margin
Gills – Adnexed to sinuate, dull pink, close to sub-distant, very broad, edges eroded
Flesh – Orange-brown to pinkish-tan, medium-thin
Stalk – 5 to 9.5 cm by 2 to 3 mm, medium orange-brown, flexuous, fibrous-striate, pithy-cartilaginous
Spore print – White
Spores – 7-9 microns, nearly round, strongly warted to spiny, non-amyloid
Comments: This is a fairly common species found from mid September to late October and has also been seen at the Rushes Kangaroo Lake trails, Mink River Preserve, Newport Park, Washington Island and other Lake Michigan area woods.

Lactarius camphoratus (Russulaceae) Maple Milk Cap

Lactarius camphoratus, shows the milky latex on the gills and the rusty to red-brown colors.

Grows scattered on soil in mixed woods
Cap – 2.5 to 4.5 cm, broadly convex to plane with a blunt umbo, medium cinnamon brown with darker umbo, dry, dull, not viscid, striate or hygrophanous, smooth
Gills – Adnate to short-decurrent, medium tan, close to crowded, narrow
Flesh – Pinkish-brown to pale brown, medium thick, latex white and unchanging, no flavor, distinct maple syrup odor
Stalk – 3 to 4 cm by 4 to 9 mm, tapers downward, dark brown, dry, dull sheen, not viscid, pithy, brittle
Spore print – White
Spores – 6-8 microns, nearly round, spiny, amyloid
Comments: This mushroom is never very large and can blend in with the forest floor due to its reddish-brown color. The best way to sense its maple odor is to wrap several fresh fruiting bodies in a waxed paper bag, store for an hour or so and then smell inside the bag just after opening it. They are found from mid August to early October and have also been seen at the Mink River Preserve and Whitefish Dunes.

Lactarius deliciosus (Russulaceae) Delicious Milk Cap

Lactarius deliciosus, These two young fruiting bodies show the overall deep orange colors and the adnate gills. Lactarius deliciosus, A fresh mushroom will ooze ample quantities of orange “milk” or latex when cut. Lactarius deliciosus, This aged fruiting body shows how they fade to yellow with some greenish tints.

Grows scattered to gregarious on soil in grass or in mixed woods
Cap – 4 to 7 cm, broadly convex with sunken center to a shallow funnel, bright light orange with concentric zoned pattern, margin incurved to uplifted in age, slightly tacky surface
Gills – Adnate to slight decurrent, medium orange, sub-distant, medium broad
Flesh – White but changes quickly to orange due to the orange latex, medium thick
Stalk – 3.5 to 5 cm by 1 cm, central, cylindrical, concolor, slightly mottled or scrobiculate, pithy to hollow, tapers downward
Spore print – Pale yellow to buff
Spores – 8-12 x 6.5-10 microns, nearly round, reticulate, amyloid
Comments: When very fresh this is a beautiful mushroom and will exude copious bright orange latex. It can be found from mid August to mid October and is more common than many other milk caps. It has also been seen Newport State Park and The Ridges Sanctuary.

Lactarius uvidus (Russulaceae) Purple-staining Milk Cap

Lactarius uvidus, This is a mature specimen in its natural habitat. Lactarius uvidus, The milky latex eventually dries and the cut parts of the gills turn purple as seen at the upper right.

Grows widely scattered on soil in mixed woods
Cap – 4 to 5 cm, Convex to flat with depressed center and tiny umbo, incurved margin, light brownish-gray, smooth
Gills – Adnate to short decurrent, white to pale tan, broad, close
Flesh – White, slowly stains purple when cut, latex creamy white
Stalk – 5 to 7 cm by 1 cm, central, cylindrical, off-white, smooth, dry, pithy to hollow
Spore print – Yellowish-white
Spores – 7.5-11 x 6-8 microns, oval, reticulate, amyloid
Comments: This mushroom is never found in abundance and not seen every year. It has been found from mid August to late September and has also been seen at The Ridges Sanctuary and the Mink River Preserve.

Lactarius vinaceorufescens (Russulaceae) Yellow-staining Milk Cap

Lactarius vinaceorufescens, the top of a mature cap. Lactarius vinaceorufescens, a nearly equal (in shape) stalk and close to crowded gills. Lactarius vinaceorufescens, The latex starts milky white and gradually changes to yellow.

Grows widely scattered on soil in mixed woods
Cap – 2 to 6 cm, broadly convex, sunken center with low umbo, orange-brown, tacky to slightly viscid, smooth
Gills – Adnate, creamy off-white, close to crowded, medium broad, haphazardly forked
Flesh – White, medium thick, milky white latex quickly changes to bright light yellow
Stalk – 3 to 7 cm, pale dull pink-tan, smooth, pithy to hollow
Spore print – White to buff
Spores – 6 to 9 microns, nearly round, spiny, amyloid
Comments: This species has been confused with L. chrysorheus which is a southern species. This is not a real common mushroom, being seen only once every few years. It appears from mid August to mid October and has also been seen at Meridian County Park, Door County Land Trust Kangaroo Lake Preserve and The Ridges Sanctuary.

Laetiporus sulphureus (Polyporaceae) Sulphur Shelf

Laetiporus sulphureus. Laetiporus sulphureus, the underside spore-bearing surface.

Grows solitary but more often in dense overlapping layers on dead or living hardwoods and conifers
Cap – 5 to 40 cm wide, semicircle to fan shape, bright orange to yellow orange with paler rounded outer margin, surface often wrinkled and bumpy; no stalk
Pore surface – Pale yellow, 2 to 4 pores per mm, pores are difficult to see when very young, darkening with bruising and in age, tubes 1 to 4 mm long
Flesh – Pale yellow, thick, soft and spongy when fresh
Spore print – White
Spores – 5-7 x 3-5 microns, nearly round, entire
Comments: This relatively common species is easily identified due to its brilliant orange color in its wooded habitats. It grows from mid June to late September and has been seen at Peninsula Park and Whitefish Dunes.

Lycogala epidendron (Reticulariaceae) Toothpaste Slime or Wolf’s-milk Slime

Lycogala epidendron, actively growing fruiting bodies. Lycogala epidendron, inner creamy substance oozes from squashed or punctured fresh specimens.

Grows scattered to clustered on dead logs
Fruiting body – 3 to 15 mm in diameter, dull pinkish tan balls with no stalks, filled with pink creamy substance that oozes out when punctured, dries to hard small knobs
Spores – Clear, 6.5 – 7 microns, round, spiny, netted, almost looked double-walled
Comments: This fairly common species grows from August to late October and has also been seen at Kangaroo Lake TNC Preserve, Whitefish Dunes State Park, Newport Park and Rock Island.

Lycoperdon marginatum (Lycoperdaceae) Peeling Puffball

Lycoperdon marginatum, Fresh fruiting body with a finger to show size and habitat. Lycoperdon marginatum – This small soil-dwelling puffball is known by the pyramid-like projections on the surface.

Grows scattered to gregarious on sandy soil in mixed woods
Fruiting body –2 to 4 cm tall by 3 to 5 cm wide, off white, densely covered with pyramid-like hairy tipped warts which peel off in sheets at maturity leaving a tan smooth undersurface
Spores – Olive brown, 4-5 microns, round, minutely warted or spiny
Comments: These grow from early September to mid October and have also been seen at the Ridges Sanctuary and Whitefish Dunes State Park. It is also know as Lycoperdon candidum.

Lycoperdon perlatum (Lycoperdaceae) Gem-studded Puffball

Lycoperdon perlatum, growth pattern of young fruiting bodies. Lycoperdon perlatum – The Gem-studded Puffball, due to the points on the surface, grows on the ground.

Grows solitary to scattered or clustered on soil in open woods often under conifers
Fruiting body – 3 to 6 cm tall by 2 to 3 cm wide, medium yellow tan to gray tan, top is often turban shaped with a 1.5 to 2 cm wide stalk that is 2 to 3 cm long. Top has 1 mm high pointed scales that rub off leaving tiny golf ball-like surface indentations.
Spores – Medium brown, 3-4 microns, spiny or finely warted
Comments: This fairly common species grows from late August to late October and has also been seen at Mink River, Peninsula Park, Rock Island and Whitefish Dunes.

Lycoperdon pyriforme (Lycoperdaceae) Pear-shaped Puffball

Lycoperdon pyriforme, growth pattern of maturing fruiting bodies with spores forming. Lycoperdon pyriforme – This puffball has a longer tapered stalk and grows on rotted wood.

Grows scattered to gregarious on rotting hardwood logs and stumps
Fruiting body – 2 to 3 cm tall by 2 cm wide, tan to medium brown, pale tan narrowed base, top has fine upright points widely spaced on the surface
Spores – Brown, 3.5-4.5 microns, round, smooth
Edibility – See L. marginatum, tasteless
Comments: This very common species grows from mid August to late October and has also been seen at Newport Park, Peninsula Park, Washington Island, Rock Island, Whitefish Dunes, Mink River and Kangaroo Lake Preserve.

Lyophyllum decastes (Tricholomataceae) Fried Chicken Mushroom

L. decastes – The stalks seem large compared to the cap size. L. decastes – White close gills show the sinuate attachment at the stalk. L. decastes – The base of these cespitose stalks have a furry coating.

Grows scattered to clustered on soil in mixed woods
Cap – 4 to 9cm, broadly convex, white to pale tan, smooth, incurved margin
Gills – sinuate, concolor, broad, close to crowded
Flesh – white, thick, firm
Stalk – central, cylindrical, 4 to 7cm by 1 to 2cm, tapers upward, concolor, slightly hairy as seen with 10 X lens, bulbous hairy base, solid to very slightly pithy, cartilaginous rind
Spore print – white
Spores – round, non-amyloid, smooth, 3-4.5 microns
Found in fall; also seen in The Clearing School woods

Marasmius androsaceus (Tricholomataceae) Horsehair Fungus

Marasmius androsaceus, very small, each mushroom is growing on a single spruce needle. Marasmius androsaceus, underside showing gills.

Grows gregariously on fallen spruce needles
Cap – 5 to 10 mm, convex with slightly depressed center, white
Gills – Adnate, white to cream, sub-distant, intervenose
Flesh – Little to none
Stalk – 3 to 4 cm by .5 mm, central, dark brown, wire-like
Spore print – White, but often difficult to obtain
Spores – 6-9 x 2.5-4.5 microns, elliptical, entire, non-amyloid
Edibility – Not edible; too tough and too small
Comments: This species is difficult to find as each fruiting body is attached to one fallen spruce needle lying on the dark ground. They appear from early July to late September and have also been seen at The Ridges Sanctuary.

Marasmius oreades (Tricholomataceae) Fairy Ring Mushroom

Marasmius oreades, often grow in a fairy ring in grass. Marasmius oreades, a mature fruiting body with uplifted margin. Marasmius oreades, view of widely spaced gills on the mature mushroom and one young specimen.

Grows gregariously or in fairy rings in grassy areas
Cap – 2 to 4 cm, broadly convex with a low umbo, yellow-tan, smooth, hygrophanous, not striate, slightly scurfy surface on umbo
Gills – Adnexed to nearly free, tan, sub-distant, broad
Flesh – White to pale tan, thick, unpleasant acrid odor
Stalk – 4 to 6 cm by 3 to 5 mm, pale tan, central and cylindrical, tapers downward, tough, solid to pithy, smooth apex, scurfy base
Spore print – White
Spores – 6-8.5 x 4-6 microns, oval, entire, non-amyloid
Comments: This mushroom is quite common in many parts of Door County where large grassy areas exist. At Toft Point it has been found in the west end of the old field and east of the barn. It appears from early August through late September.

Merulius tremellosus (Corticiaceae) Trembling Merulius; Dry Rot Fungus

Merulius tremellosus – The Trembling Merulius grows rapidly on well-rotted wood during extended wet weather. Note the pores on the surface of sections without caps. M. tremellosus – A fan-shaped cap is zonate and has a ragged white margin. M. tremellosus – The underside of the fan-shaped cap shows the pores forming a labyrinth pattern.

Grows as multiple shelving masses on dead hardwood, especially American Beech
Fruiting body – 5cm by 3cm (average), tan, one zone is radially wrinkled and other sections are smooth, margin is hairy and whitish, dull color, soft and flexible when fresh
Fertile surface (underside) – very light tan, darker near attachment, labyrinth-pored and toothed, teeth up to 5mm long, one layer, pores 2 per mm
Flesh – tan, thin
Spore print – white or clear
Spores – sausage-shaped, smooth non-amyloid, 6-8.5x1.5-2.5 microns
Found in September; also seen at Whitefish Dunes State Park

Microglossum rufum (Geoglossaceae) Flat-headed Earth Tongue

Microglossum rufum and Hygrocybe cantharellus – The bright yellow Microglossums show their spoon-shaped heads and the granular surface on the stalks.

Grows scattered to clustered on well-rotted wood or buried wood in mixed forests
Fruiting body – 3 to 4.5 cm tall, head is 5 to 10 mm wide and 1 to 1.5 cm tall, deep yellow to yellow-orange, spoon-like and slightly compressed head
Flesh – Thin and brittle
Stalk – 2 cm tall by 2 to 4 mm wide, concolor, scurfy-scaly near apex
Spores – Clear, 30-47 x 5-7 microns, entire, look like long skinny bananas
Comments: This uncommon species grows from mid July to late September and has also been seen at Meridian County Park, Mink River, Newport Park and The Ridges Sanctuary.

Morchella esculenta (Morchellaceae) Yellow or Tan Morel

Morchella esculenta, One large specimen with a fat stalk. Morchella esculenta, view of the irregular pattern of pits and ridges on the cap. Morchella esculenta, hollow stalk and center of the mushroom.

Grows solitary to scattered on soil in open woods or fields
Cap – 4 to 12 cm tall by 2 to 5 cm wide, oval to slightly irregular shape, yellow-brown to tan, pits roundish to irregular not as vertically set as in the black morel
Flesh – little to none
Stalk – 1 to 6 cm tall by 1 to 3 cm wide, light tan, hollow and confluent with the lower edge of the cap, finely granular surface, equal or enlarged at base
Spores – Clear, 17-24 x 9-14 microns, elliptical, entire
Comments: This species is rather rare at Toft Point. It grows in May to early June and has been found in many other areas of Door County.

Mycena alcalina (Tricholomataceae) Alkaline Mycena

Mycena alcalina, growth pattern and habitat of immature specimens.

Grows in clusters on well-rotted conifer wood
Cap – 2 to 4 cm, conic to bell-shaped aging to nearly flat, low umbo, dark gray when young fading to pale gray or gray-brown, smooth, striate
Gills – Adnate to slightly decurrent, grayish-white, close, broad
Flesh – Gray, thin, odor like bleach
Stalk – 3 to 6 cm by 1.5 to 2.5 mm, pale gray, smooth, fragile, hollow
Spore print – White
Spores – 7-9 x 5 microns, elliptical, entire, strongly amyloid
Comments: This is a very uncommon species, recorded only once at Toft Point by Veronica Pavlat in the fall of 1983. It has also been seen at the Mink River Preserve.

Mycena atroalboides (Tricholomataceae) No common name

Mycena atroalboides, The sulcate-striate cap is held to show the small size and dark color. Mycena atroalboides, view showing widely-spaced gills.

Grows solitary to scattered on soil near rotted conifers
Cap – 1 cm tall by 1.7 cm wide, hemispheric, medium brown, dry, no sheen, smooth, strongly striate halfway to center of cap
Gills – Adnate, gray, sub-distant, broad
Flesh – Gray, thin
Stalk – 7.5 cm by 1 to 2 mm, white apex, light gray-brown lower half, central, curved, smooth, pithy to hollow
Spore print – White
Spores – 8-10 x 4-6 microns, oval, entire, amyloid
Comments: Very rare; seen only once at Toft Point in October 2006 and one time at Whitefish Dunes on 10-12-95.

Mycena capillaris (Tricholomataceae) Miniscule Mycena

Mycena capillaris. Mycena capillaris. Mycena capillaris.

Grows scattered on soil or in moss under conifers or mixed woods
Cap – 5-7 mm, conic to bell-shaped, broad umbo, dull, dry, soft light gray-brown, darker center, striate
Gills – Adnexed, light tan, broad, close to sub-distant, not emarginate
Flesh – little to none
Stalk – Central, cylindrical, 2.5-6 cm x 1 mm, medium-tan, smooth, white hairs at base
Spore print – White
Spores – Elliptical, entire, non-amyloid, 8-9 x 3.75-4.5 microns
Comments: this very slender tall mushroom can be missed if you walk by too fast; it is found in September and October

Mycena pura (Tricholomataceae) Lilac Mycena

Mycena pura, growth pattern and habitat of this over-mature specimen.

Grows solitary or clustered on soil in mixed woods
Cap – 1.5 to 4 cm, broadly convex to nearly flat with a lightly tomentose (fine hairs) low umbo, margin smooth, dry, hygrophanous
Gills – Adnate to short decurrent, dull lilac, no dark edges, sub-distant, very broad
Flesh – White to very pale lilac, very thin, radish odor
Stalk – 7 cm by 2-3 mm, central, white to pale lilac, hairy base, smooth, hollow
Spore print – White
Spores – 5-10 x 3-5 microns, elliptical, entire, amyloid
Comments: This is never abundant being reported only once at Toft Point by Veronica Pavlat in the fall of 1983. It can be found mostly in September to mid October and has also been seen at Mink River Preserve, Washington Island and Whitefish Dunes State Park.

Mycena subcana (Tricholomataceae) Neutral Gray Mycena

Mycena subcana. Mycena subcana. Mycena subcana. Mycena subcana.

Grows scattered on soil or in moss under conifers
Cap – 1.5-2 cm, conic to bell-shaped, gray-brown, smooth, dry, striate margin is pale gray
Gills – Adnate, pale gray, broad, close to sub-distant, not emarginate
Flesh – White, very thin
Stalk – Central, cylindrical, 3-7 cm x 1-3 mm, apex is pale gray, rest is medium gray with a very hairy base, smooth, fragile, pithy to hollow
Spore print – White
Spores – Elliptical, smooth, amyloid, 8-11 x 5-7.5 microns
Comments: Found from September to early November, also seen at Whitefish Dunes State Park and Meridian County Park

Naematoloma sublateritium (Strophariaceae) Brick Tops

Naematoloma sublateritium, mass of young developing fruiting bodies. Naematoloma sublateritium, a closer view of maturing caps. Naematoloma sublateritium, view from below shows a young cap at the left with the fibrous partial veil hiding the gills. Two other mushrooms show fibers at cap margins and no ring on the stalk.

Grows scattered to cespitose on fallen hardwoods, mainly paper birch
Cap – 3 to 5 cm, hemispheric to convex becoming flat in age, medium yellow brown to orange brown, faintly furry, hygrophanous, margin incurved at first
Gills- Sinuate or adnate to short decurrent, close to crowded, pale tan when young, gray when mature, very broad
Flesh – Tan to medium brown, medium thick
Stalk – 4 to 6 cm by 4 to 8 mm, pale tan apex, rest is medium brown to dark brown base, tough, pithy to hollow, fibrous striate
Spore print – Purple brown
Spores – 6-8 x 3-4 microns, oval, entire
Comments: This fairly common species is found growing from early September to late October. It has also been seen at Newport State Park and Whitefish Dunes. Another genus name is Hypholoma.

Otidea auricula (Pyronemataceae) no common name

Otidea auricula. Otidea auricula. Otidea auricula.

Grows scattered to clustered on soil under conifers
Fruiting body an upright cup-like structure with a short stalk, curved fertile inner side is a rich deep chocolate brown with a dull matte surface; outer surface is slightly paler with a dull sheen
Size – 6-9 cm tall x 2.5-5 cm wide
No gills
Flesh – whitish, thin, brittle
Stalk – 2 cm x 8-12 mm, light tan with edges curled and almost meeting
Spores – Clear, entire, oval, 18-24 x 12-16 microns
Comments: found in June on trail leading to east edge of old field; area is now covered by large fallen Eastern Hemlock; also known as Helvella silvacola and Wynnella silvacola