Environmental Science 102 Exam Bank

Steven Dutch, Natural and Applied Sciences, University of Wisconsin - Green Bay
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  1. When solar radiation passes through the Earth’s atmosphere, the ozone in the atmosphere effectively absorbs this portion of the solar radiation.
    1. Ultraviolet radiation
    2. Visible radiation
    3. Infrared radiation

  2. This greenhouse gas is produced through the anaerobic breakdown of organic matter.
    1. water vapor
    2. carbon dioxide
    3. methane
    4. chloroflourocarbons
    5. nitrous oxides

  3. This greenhouse gas contributes to both global warming and depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer.
    1. water vapor
    2. carbon dioxide
    3. methane
    4. chloroflourocarbons
    5. nitrous oxides

  4. The human activities that contribute most to global warming are:
    1. deforestation and industrial process
    2. industrial processes and agriculture
    3. burning fossil fuels and deforestation
    4. agriculture and burning fossil fuels

  5. This is the only greenhouse gas that humans really have no control over because it is naturally occurring.
    1. water vapor
    2. carbon dioxide
    3. methane
    4. chloroflourocarbons
    5. nitrous oxides

  6. The gas that has the greatest relative contribution to global warming is carbon dioxide. It is the greatest relative contributor because:
    1. it is the strongest, most efficient greenhouse gas
    2. it is more abundant than any other greenhouse gas
    3. it has been around longer than all the other greenhouse gases

  7. The use of this greenhouse gas is currently being phased out, particularly in the U.S.
    1. water vapor
    2. carbon dioxide
    3. methane
    4. chloroflourocarbons
    5. nitrous oxides

  8. The gases that make up Earth’s atmosphere:
    1. reflect away most of the solar energy that reaches the Earth’s atmosphere
    2. are, to a great extent, transparent to much of the solar energy that reaches the Earth’s atmosphere
    3. absorb and hold most of the solar energy that reaches the Earth’s atmosphere

  9. These two countries, currently ranked 9 and 10 on the list of largest per capita emitters of carbon dioxide, could add a tremendous amount of additional carbon dioxide to the atmosphere if their plans to further industrialize are fulfilled.
    1. Ukraine and China
    2. India and Ukraine
    3. Japan and China
    4. China and India

  10. Solar radiation is made up of gamma radiation, x-ray radiation, ultraviolet radiation, visible radiation, infrared radiation, microwaves, and radiowaves. However, the vast majority of the Sun’s radiation that reaches the Earth’s surface is in the form of:
    1. ultraviolet and visible radiation
    2. visible and infrared radiation
    3. infrared and microwave radiation
    4. ultraviolet and infrared

  11. This greenhouse gas is exclusively man-made. It did not exist in pre-industrial times.
    1. carbon dioxide
    2. nitrous oxides
    3. methane
    4. chlorofluorocarbons

  12. This greenhouse has is primarily the result of the burning of fossil fuels.
    1. carbon dioxide
    2. nitrous oxides
    3. methane
    4. cholorflourocarbons

  13. When any form of radiation is absorbed by an object, the following will occur:
    1. humans will be able to see the object
    2. the object’s temperature will increase
    3. the object will become sunburned
    4. nothing will happen

  14. Based on atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations observed at the Mauna Loa Observatory in Hawaii, the following can be stated with certainty:
    1. the annual trend in carbon dioxide concentrations has been increasing
    2. over the course of the year, there is a carbon dioxide minimum in the northern hemisphere summer
    3. over the course of the year, there is a carbon dioxide maximum in the northern hemisphere winter
    4. all of the above can be stated with certainty

  15. Over the last few years the relative contribution of chlorofluorocarbons to global warming is thought to have:
    1. increased
    2. decreased
    3. remained the same

  16. Many people don’t believe this, but the strongest greenhouse gas is:
    1. carbon dioxide
    2. water vapor
    3. chlorofluorocarbons
    4. methane
    5. nitrous oxides

  17. _____ This gas is produced when commercial fertilizers breakdown in the soil
    1. water vapor
    2. methane
    3. chlorofluorocarbons
    4. carbon dioxide
    5. nitrous oxides

  18. _____ This gas is 25 times more efficient than carbon dioxide, that is, it traps 25 times more heat energy per molecule than carbon dioxide
    1. water vapor
    2. methane
    3. chlorofluorocarbons
    4. carbon dioxide
    5. nitrous oxides

  19. _____ The concentration of this gas was about 280 ppm at the start of the industrial revolution but is now at about 370 ppm.
    1. water vapor
    2. methane
    3. chlorofluorocarbons
    4. carbon dioxide
    5. nitrous oxides

  20. _____ The major sources of this gas include refrigerants, industrial solvents, and plastic foams.
    1. water vapor
    2. methane
    3. chlorofluorocarbons
    4. carbon dioxide
    5. nitrous oxides

  21. _____ This gas can make up nearly 0% or as much as 2%-3% of the atmosphere.
    1. water vapor
    2. methane
    3. chlorofluorocarbons
    4. carbon dioxide
    5. nitrous oxides

  22. _____ This gas is concentrated near the Earth’s surface.
    1. water vapor
    2. methane
    3. chlorofluorocarbons
    4. carbon dioxide
    5. nitrous oxides

  23. The number of different kinds of organisms within an individual community or ecosystem is known as:
    1. genetic diversity
    2. ecological diversity
    3. species diversity

  24. The total number of living species is estimated to be:
    1. between 500,000 and 1 million
    2. between 3 million and 50 million
    3. between 50 million and 100 million
    4. over 100 million

  25. Approximately how many species have been identified on Earth?
    1. about 500,000
    2. a little less than 1 million
    3. a little less than 1.5 million
    4. about 3 million
    5. about 30 million

  26. Most of the species that have already been discovered fall into:
    1. algae and fungi
    2. fish/sharks and arthropods
    3. insects and arthropods
    4. multicellular plants and insects
    5. arthropods and multicellular plants

  27. Most of the species that are yet undiscovered are probably:
    1. insects
    2. multicellular plants
    3. mammals and reptiles
    4. birds and fish

  28. Species diversity is most concentrated in:
    1. North America, South America, and Africa
    2. North America and Europe
    3. South America, Africa, and Southeast Asia
    4. South Africa, Australia, and Europe
    5. Oceania, East Asia, and Antarctica

  29. Which of the following is not a benefit of biodiversity for humans?
    1. aesthetics
    2. ecological services
    3. food
    4. drugs and medicines
    5. all of these are benefits of biodiversity

  30. Soil formation and nutrient recycling are examples of what type of benefit attributed to biodiversity.
    1. aesthetic benefits
    2. geological cycles
    3. availability of food
    4. ecological benefits
    5. drug and medicine beneft

  31. Habitat fragmentation usually leads to a(n):
    1. decrease in biodiversity
    2. reduction in the number of introduced species.
    3. increase in biodiversity due to the isolated populations.
    4. increase in the number of introduced species.
    5. more stable environment.

  32. In general, an animal whose population is widely scattered geographically is as/than one whose population is geographically restricted.
    1. more likely to become extinct
    2. less likely to become extinct
    3. equally likely to become extinct

  33. Ecotourism is an example of what type of benefit attributed to biodiversity.
    1. aesthetic benefits
    2. geological cycles
    3. availability of food
    4. ecological benefits
    5. drug and medicine beneft

  34. Inbreeding within a species tends to reduce:
    1. genetic diversity
    2. ecological diversity
    3. species diversity

  35. Based on the computer models that have been developed, which region of the earth do scientists believe will show the most pronounced warming?
    1. poles
    2. midlatitudes
    3. subtropics
    4. tropics

  36. The best estimate of the magnitude of global warming, assuming a doubling of atmospheric carbon dioxide, is:
    1. 1°C
    2. 2°C
    3. 3°C
    4. 4°C
    5. 6°C

  37. Increased carbon dioxide may actually benefit agriculture because of the increased productivity of C3 plants. Which of the following is not an example of a C3 plant?
    1. corn
    2. rice
    3. wheat
    4. barley

  38. Increased concentrations of carbon dioxide will help increase photosynthesis levels in plants assuming:
    1. the correct hybrid/variety is planted
    2. the crop is well fertilized
    3. insect pests are kept in check
    4. the crop has enough water

  39. What greenhouse gas, trapped under permafrost, will be released if the permafrost ever thaws?
    1. carbon dioxide
    2. methane
    3. nitrous oxides
    4. chlorofluorocarbons
    5. ozone

  40. If global warming occurs, the Great Plains might find:
    1. increased land values as the Corn Belt shifts westward
    2. increased land values due to the agricultural infrastructure (e.g., irrigation systems) already in place for the different crops that would be grown there
    3. decreased land values due to less productive crops
    4. decreased land values when wheat takes over land currently in native grasses

  41. Global warming means just that, global warming. Climate changes will vary depending on the specific region. Assuming global warming does occur, it is likely that in the Midwest and Great Plains of the U.S., temperature will _________ , while evaporation will ___________ .
    1. increase, increase
    2. increase, decrease
    3. decrease, increase
    4. decrease, decrease

  42. Again, assuming global warming does occur, wintertime precipitation is expected to _________ and summertime precipitation is expected to ____________ in the Great Plains and Midwest of the U.S.
    1. increase, increase
    2. increase, decrease
    3. decrease, increase
    4. decrease, decrease

  43. If global warming occurs, global precipitation is expected to _____________ .
    1. increase
    2. decrease
    3. remain the same

  44. Amory Lovins of the Rocky Mountain Institute estimated that raising the efficiency of the U.S. car and light truck fleet by mile(s) per gallon would cut oil consumption by about 295,000 barrels a day.
    1. 1
    2. 5
    3. 10
    4. 15
    5. 20

  45. Energy efficiency is a measure of:
    1. heat produced by a barrel of fuel
    2. energy stored in a unit of fuel
    3. energy produced compared to energy consumed
    4. total energy consumed
    5. energy used per unit of time

  46. Net energy yield differs from energy efficiency in that net yield takes into account:
    1. lifetime energy costs of equipment, infrastructure, and disposal
    2. energy lost in conversion from heat to electricity
    3. energy saved in waste heat capture
    4. lifetime energy consumption of all users of the energy produced by a plant or generator
    5. energy lost in conversion from one form to another form

  47. A glass greenhouse on the south side of a building is an example of:
    1. parabolic collection
    2. an active solar heating system
    3. passive heat absorption
    4. eutectic heat exchange

  48. Photovoltaic cells work because solar energy striking their surface:
    1. separates electrons from parent atoms, causing an electric potential in attached wires
    2. is collected in the form of photons and sent through attached wires
    3. causes an uneven magnetic charge to develop
    4. changes to chemical energy

  49. Renewable energy makes up about 18% of total world energy use. Biomass comprises of that supply.
    1. 5%
    2. 10%
    3. 25%
    4. 50%
    5. 75%

  50. Active solar energy systems involve:
    1. large volumes of massive heat absorbers
    2. pumps and moving fluids
    3. photovoltaic cells
    4. stationary materials to gather and hold heat

  51. Manure or dung makes a good fuel except that it is:
    1. scarce
    2. not clean
    3. needed to rebuild the soil
    4. difficult to burn

  52. Solar energy potential is greatest in which of the following areas?
    1. Gulf Coast states
    2. New England states
    3. Desert Southwest states
    4. Pacific Northwest states
    5. Texas Panhandle area

  53. Burning methane from dung:
    1. is more efficient than burning the dung directly
    2. provides more heat than burning the dung directly
    3. allows the dung to also be used as a fertilizer
    4. all of the above

  54. Since the 1920s, hydropower production has:
    1. risen, but not as fast as fossil fuel use
    2. fallen due to disinterest
    3. fallen due to a lack of available sites
    4. stayed about the same

  55. One potential policy that would encourage conservation and the use of alternative energy resources would require all utility customers to pay a small kWh charge to fund research development. This is known as:
    1. Resources portfolio
    2. Distribution fee
    3. Green pricing

  56. The total world production of hydropower is currently equal to percent of the total world potential.
    1. 100
    2. 70
    3. 50
    4. 25
    5. 10

  57. The largest current users (per capita) of electricity generated from hydropower are:
    1. Canada, Norway, Brazil, Switzerland
    2. Norway, Brazil, Switzerland, New Zealand
    3. Canada, Brazil, Switzerland, New Zealand
    4. Switzerland, New Zealand, Canada, Norway
    5. New Zealand, Canada, Norway, Brazil

  58. The world’s largest producer of electricity generated from hydropower is:
    1. Canada
    2. United States
    3. Norway
    4. New Zealand

  59. The largest dam in the world, which is currently under construction, is found on the:
    1. Parana River between Brazil and Paraguay
    2. Nile River in Egypt
    3. Yangtze River in China
    4. Po River in China
    5. Mississippi River in the U.S.

  60. In the U.S., windmills played a critical role in the settlement of:
    1. Appalachia
    2. central California
    3. the Great Plains
    4. the Rocky Mountains
    5. the Northeast

  61. The world’s largest wind power producers are:
    1. the U.S. and Denmark
    2. Brazil and Japan
    3. Japan and France
    4. Denmark and Australia

  62. A major force leading Americans to begin thinking about energy conservation was the:
    1. industrial revolution
    2. 1973 Arab oil embargo
    3. near depletion of domestic coal supplies
    4. invention of nuclear energy
    5. 1991 Gulf War

  63. Wind speeds at site “A” are, on average, twice as fast as at site “B.” As a result, site “A” will generate:
    1. the same amount of electricity as site “B”
    2. twice the amount of electricity as site “B”
    3. four times the amount of electricity as site “B”
    4. eight times the amount of electricity as site “B”

  64. A system of pipes painted black that have water circulating on the wall in a glass greenhouse on the south side of a building is an example of:
    1. parabolic collection
    2. an active solar heating system
    3. passive heat absorption
    4. eutectic heat exchange

  65. The largest source of energy loss from a home is usually a result of energy escaping from:
    1. poorly insulated walls and attics
    2. poorly caulked cracks and loose joints
    3. single paned windows
    4. windows that lack curtains/window coverings

  66. The best locations for wind energy farms are those in which wind speeds are average ______ or more.
    1. 10 mph
    2. 15 mph
    3. 20 mph
    4. 25 mph

  67. One potential policy that would encourage conservation and the use of alternative energy resources would have consumers voluntarily pay an additional fee to finance renewable energy. This is known as:
    1. Resources portfolio
    2. Distribution fee
    3. Green pricing

  68. In 1850, wood supplied about 90% of the U.S. fuel energy. Currently, wood supplies about this much of the U.S. fuel energy:
    1. 95%
    2. 75%
    3. 50%
    4. 25%
    5. 10% F) <1%

  69. Fossil fuels currently supply about percent of all world commercial energy supplies.
    1. 95
    2. 85
    3. 75
    4. 50
    5. 25

  70. Which of the following energy sources does not contribute to the greenhouse effect?
    1. coal
    2. petroleum
    3. nuclear power
    4. wood
    5. natural gas

  71. The U.S. and Canada make up 5% of the world’s population, but consume about of the world’s available energy.
    1. nine-tenths
    2. two-thirds
    3. one-half
    4. one-quarter

  72. Under normal operating conditions, power plants release radioactivity as well as toxic metals.
    1. coal-fired
    2. hydroelectric
    3. nuclear
    4. wind-generated

  73. In the U.S., the largest percentage of energy is used in:
    1. industry
    2. residential and commercial buildings
    3. transportation

  74. Which of the following statements is true?
    1. world coal reserves are substantially smaller than petroleum reserves
    2. the fossil fuel most readily available and abundant in the U.S. and Canada is petroleum
    3. the U.S. has only enough proven oil supplies to last ten years at current rates of consumption
    4. world coal reserves are only large enough to provide power for about 100 years

  75. Which of the following is not a major gas leased when coal is burned?
    1. sulfur dioxide
    2. methane
    3. carbon monoxide
    4. carbon dioxide
    5. nitrogen oxides

  76. Most useful oil deposits are usually found:
    1. in a liquid pool under a layer of impermeable shale
    2. saturating porous rocks, like water in a sponge
    3. locked in the mineral structure of a rock formation
    4. in pools on the earth’s surface, where geologic pressures have forced them to collect
    5. in small pools directly above the bedrock

  77. Which of the following locations does not hold great potential for new oil discoveries?
    1. Grand Banks in the North Atlantic Ocean
    2. Beaufort Sea off the northern coast of Alaska
    3. Gulf of Alaska off the southern coast of Alaska
    4. California coast

  78. Natural gas is the source of commercial energy worldwide.
    1. largest single
    2. second largest
    3. third largest
    4. fourth largest
    5. fifth largest

  79. The chemical industry is the second largest industrial consumer of fossil fuels with _______ used for energy generation and ________ used for raw materials in manufacturing.
    1. half … half
    2. three quarters … one quarter
    3. one quarter … three quarters
    4. one third … two thirds
    5. two thirds … one third

  80. Sweden, Denmark, and Switzerland have higher standards of living (based on GNP) than Americans or Canadians:
    1. because their energy consumption is much greater
    2. even though their energy use is about equal to ours
    3. even though their energy use is much less than ours
    4. none of these, Sweden, Denmark, and Switzerland do not have a higher standard of living compared to Americans and Canadians

  81. Which of the following is not considered a fossil fuel?
    1. coal
    2. natural gas
    3. oil
    4. charcoal
    5. all of these are considered to be fossil fuels

  82. This area has the most proven reserves of natural gas:
    1. Middle East
    2. Former USSR
    3. North and Central America
    4. Europe

  83. For much of the past decade, and even still today, there has been great debate over oil and natural gas drilling in:
    1. the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge
    2. the Everglades National Wildlife Refuge
    3. the Buffalo Commons Wildlife Refuge
    4. Yellowstone National Park
    5. All of these

  84. Developing countries typically depend on biomass for their energy needs. This potentially has serious economic consequences to their:
    1. agricultural land
    2. soils and forests
    3. biodiversity

  85. Fossilized plant material, buried and compacted over time into carbon-rich fuel defines:
    1. coal
    2. oil
    3. natural gas

  86. Black lung disease results from:
    1. inhaling radioactive material released when coal is burned at power plants
    2. inhaling the pollution released by coal when it is burned at power plants
    3. inhaling coal dust when extracting coal from underground mines

  87. Worldwide, at current consumption rates, which nonrenewable energy source is expected to be depleted first?
    1. coal
    2. oil
    3. natural gas

  88. Over the past 150 years, the primary form of energy consumed in the U.S. has changed from:
    1. coal to oil to wood
    2. oil to wood to coal
    3. coal to wood to oil
    4. wood to oil to coal
    5. wood to coal to oil F) oil to coal to wood

  89. Until the late-1940s the U.S. was the:
    1. largest exporter of oil
    2. second largest exporter of oil
    3. second largest importer of oil
    4. largest importer of oil

  90. The most rapidly growing nonrenewable energy source is:
    1. coal
    2. oil
    3. natural gas

  91. Three of the following areas each contain about one-quarter of the world’s proven reserve of coal. Which one does not?
    1. Europe
    2. Asia
    3. North and Central America
    4. Former USSR

  92. Major U.S. suppliers of oil in the 1970s included:
    1. Saudi Arabia and Iran
    2. Mexico and Iraq
    3. Venezuela and Mexico
    4. Kuwait and Saudi Arabia
    5. United Arab Emirates and Kuwait

  93. Renewable energy resources make up about 4-5% of the commercial energy supply worldwide. Which of the following makes up the bulk of that 4-5%?
    1. solar
    2. hydroelectric
    3. wind
    4. geothermal

  94. Resources that exist in fixed amounts in the environment and, on a human timescale, when used up are exhausted are considered to be:
    1. Potentially renewable resources
    2. Intangible resources
    3. Nonrenewable resources
    4. Renewable resources

  95. If recovery of a resource is not economical now, but it is likely in the future, it is considered to be:
    1. undiscovered resource
    2. known resource
    3. proven reserve
    4. unrecoverable resource

  96. Which is not true regarding a “Common” area:
    1. the typical human thinking is, “If I don’t use it, someone else will”
    2. it is land that is available to all users with no charge incurred
    3. it involves a communal resource management system
    4. it is usually degraded or destroyed by an individuals self-interest

  97. Resources that are valuable for their aesthetic value are known as:
    1. Potentially renewable resources
    2. Intangible resources
    3. Nonrenewable resources
    4. Renewable resources
    5. Unconceived resources

  98. A resource exists. We know it exists. But we haven’t a clue where to even begin looking for it. This is considered a(n):
    1. unrecoverable resource
    2. Intangible resource
    3. Recoverable resource
    4. Renewable resource
    5. Unconceived resource

  99. Availability of this resource can be extended by more efficient use, recycling, or substitution:
    1. Potentially renewable resources
    2. Intangible resources
    3. Nonrenewable resources
    4. Renewable resources
    Match the following categories of resources to the examples below:
    1. Renewable resource
    2. Nonrenewable resource
    3. Intangible resource
    4. Potentially renewable resource

  100. _____ groundwater

  101. _____ wind

  102. _____ fertile soil

  103. _____ vegetation

  104. _____ minerals

  105. _____ national park

  106. Tourism has the potentially be a great economic resource because tourism is a(n):
    1. Potentially renewable resources
    2. Intangible resources
    3. Nonrenewable resources
    4. Renewable resources

  107. The availability of this type of resource often depends on our stewardship of the resource.
    1. Potentially renewable resources
    2. Intangible resources
    3. Nonrenewable resources
    4. Renewable resources

  108. Which of the following is not a likely solution to a “Common” area situation?
    1. privatizing the area
    2. establishing an open access system
    3. developing a communal resource management system
    4. let the government regulate the area

  109. Which of the following is an effective response to resource scarcity?
    1. substituting different materials for scarce ones
    2. increasing efficiency
    3. recycling
    4. human ingenuity
    5. all of the above

  110. Resources that are accessible with current technology, but are not necessarily economical that this time are known as:
    1. undiscovered resource
    2. known resource
    3. proven reserve
    4. recoverable resource Use the following diagram to answer the next 3 questions.

  111. The graph shows how ______________________ when economies develop.
    1. quantity increases as prices rise
    2. prices hall as quantities rise
    3. prices and quantities fall simultaneously
    4. quantities and prices rise simultaneously
    5. quantities and prices naturally change through time

  112. The price/quantity intersection marked “a” represents a(n) ___________ economy.
    1. developing
    2. modern
    3. elastic
    4. frontier
    5. developed

  113. The economy with the greatest volume of production is marked:
    1. a
    2. b
    3. c
    4. it is not possible to identify the economy with the greatest volume of production with the data provided

  114. In which type of economy does inefficiency not matter because of the large resource supply?
    1. frontier economy
    2. developing economy
    3. modern economy
  115. Most rangelands are found on open grasslands where forests and crops do not grow because:
    1. temperatures are too high for forests or crops.
    2. rainfall is too scarce or seasonal for forests or crops.
    3. soil is too thin for forests or crops.
    4. rainfall is too heavy for forests or crops.
    5. there is not much biodiversity. Use the figure below to answer the next 2 questions.

  116. What conclusions can you make from the graph above?
    1. Ecosystem “a” has the most threatened plant species.
    2. Ecosystem “a” has the most biodiversity.
    3. Humans use ecosystem “a” much more than ecosystem “b.”
    4. Ecosystem “c” is used by humans about twice as much as ecosystem “d.”

  117. Based on what you know about land use, what ecosystem do you think is represented by Ecosystem “a”?
    1. Barren
    2. Forest
    3. Aquatic
    4. Rangeland
    5. Wetland

  118. The first symptom of range overgrazing is usually:
    1. the absence of trees
    2. the compaction of soils
    3. desertification
    4. the disappearance of palatable vegetation

  119. Most public rangelands in poor condition are due to:
    1. overcrowding of private livestock.
    2. too many publicly owned animals on public lands.
    3. excessive urban settlement in the West.
    4. the lack of water.

  120. Places most susceptible to desertification are:
    1. jungle clearings.
    2. boreal landscapes.
    3. open woodlands.
    4. desert margins

  121. World deserts are:
    1. decreasing as world climate becomes wetter.
    2. increasing because of the increase in global carbon dioxide.
    3. increasing because of grazing.
    4. decreasing because of massive reforestation.

  122. Rangeland is important because:
    1. it is highly productive in terms of biomass produced.
    2. it is a species-rich ecosystem.
    3. grazing animals can turn plant material with little food value to most mammals into a source of meat and milk.
    4. all of the above.

  123. Publicly-owned rangeland in the U.S.:
    1. comprises 50% of all rangeland area.
    2. totals 12 million square miles of land.
    3. is grazed by 2% of cattle and 10% of sheep.
    4. none of the above.

  124. Livestock production in the U.S. differs from worldwide livestock production in that:
    1. in the U.S., feedlot production is common
    2. feed primarily comes from crops grown for that purpose
    3. feed primarily comes from rangeland and pasture
    4. A and B

  125. Most public rangelands are in poor condition due to:
    1. excessive populations of wild grazing animals
    2. overcrowding of private livestock
    3. too many publicly owned animals on public lands
    4. excessive urban settlement in the West

  126. Approximately how much of U.S. rangeland is privately owned?
    1. 30%
    2. 40%
    3. 50%
    4. 60%

  127. Grazing fees on public lands have changed little because:
    1. political pressures ensure they remain low
    2. they remain at market value, so there is no reason to change them
    3. the public feels that the price is right
    4. livestock owners cannot afford higher fees

  128. The main difference between pasture and rangeland is:
    1. pastures are typically much larger than rangelands
    2. pastures are typically intensively managed and rangelands are not
    3. pastures are typically open and rangelands are typically fenced
    4. pastures are typically made of unpalatable grasses, scrub, etc. while rangelands are typically made of palatable grasses

  129. Approximately how much of the world’s land surface is devoted to rangeland?
    1. One-tenth
    2. One-fifth
    3. One-quarter
    4. One-half

  130. Growing human population is forcing rangeland to be converted to other purposes. How much more rangeland area is being lost compared to rainforest area?
    1. three times
    2. four times
    3. five times
    4. six times

  131. Rangeland is typically located in what type of climate?
    1. Arid (<10” rainfall per year)
    2. Semiarid (between 10” and 16” rainfall per year)
    3. Subhumid (between 15” and 40” rainfall per year)
    4. Humid (Between 40” and 60” rainfall per year)
    5. Both A and B F) Both C and D

  132. Overgrazing leads to:
    1. soil compaction problems
    2. invasion by non-native species
    3. lowered productivity of the land
    4. a greater abundance of less palatable, less nutritious vegetation
    5. all of the above

  133. Which of the following ecosystems is known as the “Footprint of Civilization”?
    1. deserts
    2. rangeland
    3. cropland
    4. forests
    5. wetland

  134. Worldwide, approximately how much of the soil degradation taking place is attributable to overgrazing?
    1. one-tenth
    2. one-quarter
    3. one-third
    4. one-half

  135. In which of the following areas is overgrazing contributing the most to soil degradation?
    1. Africa
    2. Asia
    3. Oceania
    4. South America

  136. One of the good things about grazing animals is that different species prefer different types of vegetation. For instance, goats prefer:
    1. grass and herbaceous plants
    2. low woody shrubs
    3. tree leaves and larger woody plants

  137. In comparing the area in rangeland to the area in cropland, on a worldwide basis:
    1. there is about twice as much land devoted to range than to crops
    2. there is about an equal amount of each
    3. there is about twice as much land devoted to crops than to range
    4. there is about three times as much land devoted to range than to crops

  138. “The process of denuding and degrading once-fertile land initiating a desert-producing cycle that feeds on itself” is the definition of:
    1. deforestation
    2. desertification
    3. overgrazing

  139. Meat from wild grazing animals may become a more important source of human food because:
    1. increased leisure time in the developed countries will encourage sport hunting
    2. wild animals are generally more efficient at converting plant material into meat and are members of natural biological communities
    3. wild animals are easier to breed and control
    4. unlike domestic grazers, wild grazing animals can easily digest cellulose

  140. A country’s renewable water supplies are generally made up of:
    1. surface runoff and infiltration into accessible aquifers.
    2. seasonal flooding and infiltration into accessible aquifers.
    3. rivers running through the country.
    4. water used from an aquifer.

  141. All of the countries listed below are considered to be “water-poor” countries. Which country does not fit the mold of the typical “water-poor” country?
    1. Jordan
    2. Israel
    3. Kuwait
    4. Singapore
    5. Egypt

  142. The reason the country identified in the question above does not fit the mold of a typical “water-poor” country is:
    1. it has higher evaporation rates than the other countries listed
    2. it has a drier climate than the other countries listed
    3. it has a high population density than the other countries listed
    4. it has lower precipitation rates than the other countries listed

  143. Many “water-poor” countries are located:
    1. between approximately 20°-30° latitude
    2. near the equator
    3. between approximately 40°-50° latitude
    4. near the poles

  144. The biggest reason Canada is considered a “water-rich” country is:
    1. it has especially high precipitation rates
    2. it has a huge land area
    3. it has an especially moist climate
    4. it has a high population density

  145. Human water withdrawals have been increasing at about rate as worldwide population growth.
    1. the same
    2. half the
    3. twice the
    4. one-third the
    5. three times the

  146. Comparing water use of developed to developing countries:
    1. more water is used for agriculture in developed countries
    2. more water is used for domestic purposes in developing countries
    3. more water is used for industry in developed countries

  147. Regarding the Ogallala Aquifer:
    1. its water is replaced on an annual basis through precipitation.
    2. its water originally came from ocean water seepage.
    3. it is a nonrenewable resource.
    4. none of the above. Use the figure below to answer the next question.

  148. On the graph of domestic water use per person shown above, each letter represents a country. Which of the following is most likely?
    1. B is the U.S., A is China
    2. A is the U.S., B is China
    3. A is the U.S., B is Canada
    4. A is India, B is China
    5. B is India, A is China

  149. The Ogallala Aquifer supplies water to and once held more water than the surface water .
    1. California’s Central Valley, in the world
    2. the Rocky Mountain states, in the U.S.
    3. the central Plains states, in the world
    4. Arizona and Las Vegas, in the U.S.

  150. A method of increasing water supplies that has proven to be successful, but expensive, is:
    1. desalinization by reverse osmosis.
    2. cloud seeding.
    3. towing icebergs by ship from polar regions.
    4. none of these methods are successful.

  151. Some countries use just about all their water for irrigation (for example, India at 93%). Other countries use very little of its water for irrigation (for example, Kuwait at 4%). Worldwide, approximately percent of total water withdrawn is used for agriculture?
    1. 30%
    2. 50%
    3. 70%
    4. 90%

  152. Many developing countries “mine” water. This is because:
    1. these countries must drill wells to reach a water source.
    2. these countries must locate underground water because there is no surface water available.
    3. these countries extract water faster than it is replenished.
    4. none of the above.

  153. Germany is a leader in using water for industrial purposes. After being used for industrial purposes most water is:
    1. put in a storage reservoir to allow sedimentation to take place
    2. detoxified of chemical pollutants before being released into streams and rivers
    3. just released into streams and rivers where it could cause thermal pollution
    4. distilled then released into streams and rivers

  154. Agricultural water use in developing countries is considered inefficient because:
    1. 60-70% of the water never reaches the crop.
    2. these countries typically use flood irrigation, so much of it evaporates before the crop uses it.
    3. these countries typically use flood irrigation, so much of it infiltrates below the crop root zone.
    4. irrigation water is transported through canals, where much of it is lost to evaporation and seepage.
    5. all of the above.

  155. In some developing countries:
    1. the quantity of water is not a problem, it is just unevenly distributed.
    2. the quantity of water is not a problem, but the quality of the water makes it unfit for consumption.
    3. quantity is a problem
    4. both A and B

  156. Water use in developing countries is dominated by:
    1. agricultural use.
    2. domestic use.
    3. industrial activities.
    4. use as drinking water.

  157. Many “water-rich” countries are located near the equator, thus their reason for being “water-rich” is due to:
    1. high precipitation rates
    2. typically large land areas
    3. low population densities

  158. Lawsuits are a potential problem if which of the following methods of increasing freshwater supplies is adopted?
    1. cloud seeding
    2. iceberg towing
    3. desalinization

  159. The greatest problem with the desalinization process used during reverse osmosis is that:
    1. salts pass too easily through the membrane.
    2. the thin membrane easily rips.
    3. only salt water with mineral concentrations below 10 ppm can effectively be desalinized.
    4. what to do with the highly concentrated saltwater that is left over.

  160. Although population growth rates in developing countries is increasing, water demand is:
    1. stabilizing
    2. also increasing
    3. decreasing

  161. Withdrawal is the total amount of water:
    1. lost in transmission due to evaporation and leakage
    2. taken from rivers, lakes, and aquifers
    3. used in manufacturing or agriculture
    4. altered or polluted in human activities

  162. In some regions groundwater withdrawals can contribute to sinkholes, in which:
    1. ground level over a large area sinks
    2. buildings slowly settle at odd, perilous angles
    3. empty underground caverns, typically made of limestone, suddenly collapse
    4. holes for wells need to be deeper because of a change in water table

  163. Desalinization of water through reverse osmosis is the principal source of water for which countries?
    1. tropical countries with long coastlines
    2. countries located in the interiors of continents
    3. oil-rich Middle Eastern countries
    4. countries in colder, more poleward locations

  164. Withdrawal of groundwater often causes subsidence, a situation where:
    1. aquifer volume decreases sharply
    2. withdrawals exceed recharge rates
    3. water quality and water tables fall
    4. porous rocks settle and ground level falls
    5. wells dry up

  165. A broad-spectrum biocide is designed to kill:
    1. a wide range of plants
    2. microbes that are neither plant nor animal
    3. all living organisms
    4. insect species

  166. The population growth curve of a pest organism would probably be _______________ because they are species in ecological succession.
    1. Exponential … pioneer
    2. Arithmetic … pioneer
    3. Stable … pioneer
    4. Stable … climax
    5. Exponential … climax

  167. Globally, the rates of pesticide use are in the wealthiest, more developed countries and the rates of pesticide use in developing countries are .
    1. Lowest … increasing
    2. Lowest … stabilizing
    3. Highest … increasing
    4. Highest … decreasing

  168. Worldwide, most pesticides are used for:
    1. agriculture.
    2. personal protection against disease carrying insects.
    3. ridding tourist areas of pests.
    4. ridding domestic homes of pests.

  169. Which of the following categories of agricultural pesticide use is highest in the U.S.?
    1. biocides
    2. fungicides
    3. insecticides
    4. herbicides
    5. rodenticides

  170. Which of the following are inorganic pesticides?
    1. rotenone and nicotine
    2. arsenic, copper, and mercury
    3. carbon tetrachloride and ethylene dibromide
    4. DDT and mothballs
    5. a complex of chemicals from the Chrysanthemum

  171. Inorganic pesticides are generally:
    1. highly toxic and remain in the soil for a long time.
    2. highly toxic and break down soon in the environment.
    3. moderately toxic and remain in the soil for a long time.
    4. moderately toxic and break down soon in the environment.
    5. toxic to insects, but safe to humans.

  172. Organophosphates operate by attacking an organism’s system.
    1. muscular
    2. blood
    3. immune
    4. nervous
    5. skeletal

  173. Chlorinated hydrocarbons have ______ toxicity for humans and remain in the soil for a ______________ time.
    1. High … long
    2. High … short
    3. Low … short
    4. Low … long

  174. Organophosphates and are similar in that they lack environmental persistence and have low bioaccumulation.
    1. chlorinated hydrocarbons
    2. carbamates
    3. inorganic pesticides
    4. natural organic pesticides

  175. Approximately what percentage of pesticide used never reaches the intended target?
    1. 20
    2. 75
    3. 50
    4. 90

  176. In terms of agriculture, pesticides have lead to _____________ for consumers.
    1. lower monetary costs
    2. more attractive produce
    3. better quality produce
    4. more availability of produce
    5. all of the above

  177. The pesticide treadmill occurs when:
    1. a virus transfers pesticide resistance to a new species.
    2. constantly decreasing doses of pesticides are needed to control pests.
    3. nontarget agricultural species are destroyed by insecticides
    4. constantly increasing doses of pesticides are needed to control pests.

  178. How can an organism be resistant to a chemical that it has never been exposed to?
    1. genes for pesticide resistance can be transferred through vectors such as viruses. B. pesticide resistance does not require chemical exposure and eventually all organisms become resistant. C. There is probably some exposure that we are not aware of. D. It is not possible for an organism to develop a resistance to a chemical it has never been exposed to.

  179. Behavioral changes as an alternative to current pesticide use would not include:
    1. switching from monoculture fields to mixed polyculture fields.
    2. rotating crops.
    3. diversify the field habitat
    4. all of the above

  180. In order to institute an integrated pest management program, it is necessary to:
    1. have large amount of money.
    2. burn all fields to eliminate biological elements.
    3. have many different kinds of crops.
    4. understand local plants and animals.

  181. With respect to chemical pest controls, integrated pest management uses:
    1. none
    2. the maximum amount as determined by economic thresholds.
    3. broad-spectrum products.
    4. the minimum amount necessary as a last resort.
    5. the maximum amount as determined by organic standards.

  182. Which of the following is not a characteristic of DDT?
    1. it is inexpensive
    2. it is stable
    3. it is soluble in water
    4. it is easy to spread
    5. it kills effectively in one application

  183. An example(s) of a microbial agent is:
    1. Sevin
    2. malathion
    3. bacillus thuringiensis
    4. ladybug
    5. A and B

  184. Without the use of pesticides, in-field yield loss to plant disease, insects, birds, and weeds could total:
    1. 1/10
    2. 1/4
    3. 1/3
    4. 1/2

  185. Biological control is one alternative to pesticide. Which of the following is not an example of a biological control?
    1. natural predators
    2. habitat diversification
    3. genetic engineering
    4. pathogens/bacteria

  186. Another form of biological control is insect birth control, this includes:
    1. using phermones to bait traps
    2. sterlizing males with radiation then releasing them into the wild
    3. using hormones to disrupt the insects’ life cycle
    4. all of the above

  187. The world’s three highest pesticide consumers are:
    1. U.S., Germany, Italy
    2. Russia, U.S., Canada
    3. India, China, Brazil
    4. U.S., India, Egypt
    5. France, Italy, U.S.

  188. The process that happens when pesticide residues evaporate from soil and water in warm areas and then condense in and precipitate in colder regions is called:
    1. bioaccumulation
    2. pesticide rain
    3. the grasshopper effect
    4. pesticide persistence and mobility

  189. Many pesticides are illegal to use in North America. Which of the following is probably not a good explanation for how these illegal pesticides still show up in tissues of people in the U.S.?
    1. the pesticides are being produced in the U.S.
    2. the pesticides can accumulate in air currents and return in rain
    3. the pesticides return on or in foreign-grown produce

  190. Which of the following is a form of chemical deterioration of soil?
    1. salinization
    2. waterlogging
    3. compaction
    4. wind erosion
    5. water erosion

  191. Which of the following causes the greatest amount of soil degradation on a global basis?
    1. chemical deterioration
    2. wind erosion
    3. physical deterioration
    4. water erosion

  192. Worldwide, the greatest area of cropland soil is begin lost to:
    1. erosion
    2. conversion to non-agricultural uses
    3. desertification

  193. Approximately how much of all fresh water is used for irrigation?
    1. 1/10
    2. 9/10
    3. 3/4
    4. 1/2

  194. Waterlogged soils usually result from:
    1. Toxic metal accumulation
    2. Excessive irrigation
    3. Excessive plowing
    4. Natural water erosion processes

  195. Green manure is:
    1. Fresh animal waste that is certified organic
    2. Green plants, especially legumes that are planted and then plowed under
    3. Green plants, especially grasses that are raised for animal fodder
    4. Commercial fertilizer that is certified organic

  196. High responder crops of the green revolution produce tremendous yields:
    1. Even in severe drought conditions
    2. With primitive farming techniques and no chemical use
    3. In response to fertilizers, pesticides, and irrigation
    4. In all conditions where standard crops fail

  197. Legumes are plants whose roots contain bacteria that can fix nitrogen and naturally fertilize plants. Which of the following are legumes?
    1. Beans and alfalfa
    2. Potatoes and beets
    3. Carrots and onions
    4. Grasses and root crops

  198. Which of the following does not occur as a result of using reduced tillage farming?
    1. Water is conserved
    2. Soil is preserved
    3. Incidence of insects and weeds is decreased

  199. Contour plowing and strip farming are methods designed to:
    1. Prevent weed spreading
    2. Improve plowing efficiency
    3. Improve harvesting efficiency
    4. Prevent water and soil loss

  200. Another word for cover crop is:
    1. mulch
    2. strip farming
    3. green manure
    4. shade planting

  201. Which of the following land management techniques is best used on steeply sloping croplands?
    1. Contour plowing
    2. Strip farming
    3. terracing

  202. Which of the following reduced tillage systems creates ridges into which the seed is planted while leaving crop residue in the furrow?
    1. Strip farming
    2. terracing
    3. contour plowing

  203. Which of the following is the best way to ensure soil health?
    1. Maintain clean, open ground between rows
    2. Strip farming and leaving residues on fields after harvest
    3. Clearing fields immediately after harvesting
    4. Establishing ridges running up and down hills

  204. In order to work well, all reduced tillage systems typically require:
    1. An adequate supply of water
    2. A ample amount of fertilizer
    3. The use of new hybrids
    4. The use of pesticides

  205. Which of the following is a form of physical deterioration of soil?
    1. salinization
    2. wind erosion
    3. nutrient depletion
    4. compaction
    5. water erosion

  206. When soils are overused, nutrient depletion often occurs. This is an example of:
    1. Physical deterioration
    2. Chemical deterioration
    3. Wind erosion
    4. Water erosion

  207. Water has a difficult time infiltrating into the soil when this form of degradation occurs:
    1. compaction
    2. nutrient depletion
    3. salinization

  208. One of the drawbacks of leaving crop residues on a field after harvest is increased:
    1. Cost due to high cost of fertilizers
    2. Pest and disease problems
    3. Salinization
    4. Wind erosion

  209. The efficiency of irrigation water is ____ in most countries. One of the primary reasons for this is:
    1. high…the abundance of water B. high…the careful use of water because it is so expensive C. high…the technology to distribute the water where it is needed most is available D. low…the lack of availability of technology to distribute the water where it is needed most. E. low…evaporative losses from unprotected water channeling

  210. Which of the following is not likely to result from land degradation?
    1. lowered biodiversity
    2. decreased yield
    3. increased infiltration of water into the soil
    4. lowered carrying capacity on rangeland

  211. Overfertilization is a very real problem that often results in:
    1. leaching/runoff of nitrates/phosphates
    2. tremendous yields that, in turn, negatives affects the supply side of global markets
    3. toxic concentrations of nutrients stored in the grain itself Genetic engineering moves selected genes from one organism to another. In agriculture, geneticists have been working on ways in which to genetically alter crops.
  212. Which of the following is or would be an example of a natural cause of extinction?
    1. Freshwater Great Lakes mussels that compete with the Zebra Mussel.
    2. Genetic assimilation as in the case of the hybridization of gray wolves and coyotes.
    3. The passenger pigeon that went extinct at the beginning of the 20th century.
    4. An insect species in the tropical forest that cannot escape predation by a native bird species in the forest.
    5. all of the above

  213. The main reason for the current high rate of animal extinctions is:
    1. uncontrolled sport hunting in the developed world.
    2. commercial harvesting of wildlife in Africa.
    3. habitat destruction worldwide.
    4. None of these by themselves cause high rates of animal extinctions, but together they combine to cause high rates.

  214. Which of the following statements about trade in endangered species is false?
    1. The principal importers of endangered species are developed countries.
    2. Overharvesting affects animals more than plants.
    3. People who say they are animal lovers are the main contributors to the trade.
    4. The principal exporters of endangered species are developing countries.
    5. None of these statements is false.

  215. Introduced species tend to the balance of ecosystems and biodiversity.
    1. increase, decrease
    2. increase, enhance
    3. maintain, enhance
    4. upset, decrease
    5. upset, increase

  216. Which of the following would be characteristic of an introduced plant species?
    1. Produces a few seeds after many years to reach maturity.
    2. Is a specialist, for example, has a low range of tolerance for soil acidity.
    3. Is an opportunist that is desired by humans for food or ornamental value.
    4. Has many predators and diseases.

  217. Genetic assimilation occurs when a rare species:
    1. disappears through crossbreeding with a related species.
    2. is strengthened through crossbreeding.
    3. mutates to adapt to environmental conditions.
    4. is subject to selection pressures and undergoes a change in genetic material.

  218. The main reason that there are relatively few invertebrates categorized as endangered species is because:
    1. we consider other groups, such as mammals, to be more interesting and desirable.
    2. worldwide there are relatively few invertebrates when compared to plants.
    3. it is extremely difficult to identify and count invertebrates.
    4. since there are 532 invertebrates considered endangered, none of the above is true.
    5. invertebrates are more numerous and the relative percentages are similar.

  219. Canada has fewer listed endangered species than the U.S. because:
    1. much of Canada lies in the far north, where diversity is low.
    2. Canadians are more careful with wildlife.
    3. there are fewer people in Canada compared to the U.S.
    4. Canada does not have a way to identify endangered species.

  220. As of 1999, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service listed how many species as endangered?
    1. 135
    2. 267
    3. 331
    4. 532
    5. 1500

  221. Although invertebrates make up 75% of all known species, they only make up of endangered species.
    1. 9%
    2. 19%
    3. 29%
    4. 39%
    5. 49%

  222. In general, funding for recovery programs is given to species that are:
    1. in the most danger.
    2. the most important.
    3. most well known.
    4. keystone species.

  223. The objective of a species recovery plan is to:
    1. interbreed threatened species with common species.
    2. increase an endangered species population until it is no longer endangered.
    3. invest corporate capital in species maintenance.
    4. study the species for a better understanding of its role in the biological community.
    5. protect the species to aid other organisms and resources in the ecosystem.
    The following 8 statements relate to the Theory of Demographic Transition. Next to each statement place an “A” if the statement is characteristic of the Pre-Industrial Stage of Development, “B” if the statement is characteristic of the Transitional Stage of Development, “C” if the statement is characteristic of the Industrial Stage of Development, and “D” if the if the statement is characteristic of the Post-Industrial Stage of Development.

  224. _____ Population grows rapidly during this stage.

  225. _____ Economic and social gains reduce the need/desire for many children.

  226. _____ The standard of living begins to improve.

  227. _____ Birth rates are high to compensate for high infant mortality.

  228. _____ Total population is low and population growth is slow.

  229. _____ Birth rates fall below zero population growth rates.

  230. _____ Birth rates decrease and begin to approach death rates.

  231. _____ Population slowly decreases.

  232. Which of the following statements is false?
    1. During the second half of the 20th century, the world’s food supply could not keep up with human population growth.
    2. If equitably distributed, each person alive today could potentially consume more calories than in 1950.
    3. The world population has more than doubled from 1950 to 2000.

  233. Which of the following regions has had the greatest success in increasing food production since approximately 1961?
    1. Sub-Sahara Africa
    2. Russia
    3. Latin America
    4. Asia

  234. Which of the following areas is projected to face the gravest food shortages as we approach the year 2010?
    1. Sub-Sahara Africa
    2. South Asia
    3. East/Southeast Asia
    4. Oceania

  235. Although they may not be the most nutritious crops, which of the following crops are cultivated due to their resistance to drought?
    1. barley and rye
    2. cassava and sweet potato
    3. sorghum and millet
    4. wheat and rye

  236. What is the basis of the statement “We could feed more people if we eat grain rather than feeding it to livestock”?
    1. first law of thermodynamics
    2. second law of thermodynamics
    3. biocentrism
    4. anthrocentrism

  237. The most efficient protein source available to humans, in terms of converting feed grain to protein, is:
    1. Fish
    2. Poultry
    3. Pork
    4. Beef

  238. Which of the following regions consumes an inequitable percentage of meat and milk?
    1. India
    2. Sudan
    3. Indonesia
    4. Japan

  239. In developed countries, improved agricultural yields can be attributed to all of the following except:
    1. more intense cropping techniques (planting two crops each year)
    2. pesticide use
    3. increased irrigation
    4. better crop varieties and hybrids
    5. increased use of fertilizers

  240. In developing countries, greater agricultural yields can be attributed to all of the following except:
    1. more intense cropping techniques (planting two crops each year)
    2. reduced soil erosion techniques
    3. new and better crop varieties and hybrids

  241. The world as a hole is reaching the limit of land that could be converted into agriculturally productive land. Potentially, which of the following areas has the highest percentage of land that could put into agricultural production.
    1. East Asia
    2. Latin America
    3. Africa

  242. There are many reasons behind the starvation that is occurring in Sub-Sahara Africa. From the perspective of Sub-Sahara Africa, the least of these problems is:
    1. drought/climate
    2. overpopulation
    3. war
    4. poverty
    5. government mismanagement

  243. Per capita cropland is becoming an important issue because we need to feed a growing population. Which of the following regions faces the greatest challenge in terms of having the lowest cropland per capita?
    1. Africa
    2. Asia
    3. Latin America
    4. Oceania
  244. The world human population reached 1 billion around:
    1. 1400
    2. 1500
    3. 1600
    4. 1700
    5. 1800

  245. According to the U.S. Census Bureau, in July 1999 the world’s population passed:
    1. 6 million
    2.  78 million
    3. 6  billion
    4.  78 billion

  246. Historically, up until the middle ages, populations were mostly limited by:
    1. low fertility rates
    2. culturally-imposed family planning practices
    3. disease, famine, and war
    4. religious restrictions on marriage
    5. infanticide

  247. Ninety percent of the world’s population growth in the 21st century is expected to occur in:
    1. developing countries
    2. China
    3. India
    4. Developed countries

  248. Russia’s population is declining because:
    1. there is a one-child policy similar to the one in China and Thailand
    2. there has been a massive education campaign to reduce births
    3. the standard of living has decreased leading to lower infant mortality and lower birth rates
    4. Russia’s population is not declining
    5. the standard of living has decreased leading to higher death rates and lower birth rates

  249. The zero population growth rate is slightly over two children per couple because:
    1. we always need slightly more young people
    2. the older generation is dying
    3. some children die and some couples do not have children
    4. that is as low as birth rates can reasonably be expected to get

  250. Women who _________ are least likely to have many children.
    1. cannot afford children
    2. live where many children die young
    3. are subordinate to their husbands
    4. are able to earn an income for themselves
    5. all of the above

  251. There is some evidence that population growth today is ________ rather than _______.
    1. slowing slightly…continuing to accelerate
    2. continuing to accelerate…slowing slightly
    3. increasing…leveling off
    4. leveling off…decreasing Use the following age structure diagrams to answer the next 3 questions.

  252. The population represented by the age structure diagram on the right will:
    1. have a large population of old people soon
    2. not grow much in the coming years
    3. soon begin to decline
    4. grow substantially in the future
    5. grow slowly in the future

  253. The age structure diagram on the right would most accurately represent the population of:
    1. the U.S.
    2. Kenya
    3. Japan
    4. Sweden

  254. The age structure diagram on the left represents a population whose birth rates:
    1. have not changed for many years
    2. have recently decreased
    3. are gradually increasing
    4. are sharply increasing

  255. Which of the following is characteristic of a country with a fast growing population:
    1. is often involved in political or economic crises
    2. often has hyperinflation
    3. has a well-organized means of sanitation
    4. has a high crime rate
  256. For the following 5 questions, answer A if the statement would be attributed to an ecologist, B if the statement would be attributed to an economist, and C if the statement would be attributed to a sociologist.

  257. ___ The key to reducing human population lies in improving the living standards of the world’s poor.

  258. ___ Expanding human population will no doubt lead to resource depletion and environmental degradation.

  259. ___ Current global shortages are a result of greed, waste, and oppression.

  260. ___ The key to reducing human population lies in immediate, worldwide birth control.

  261. ___ More people are beneficial…people are the ultimate resource. Use the following graph to answer the next 3 questions.

  262. According to the graph, which region had the highest total fertility rate in 1998:
    1. Africa
    2. The Americas
    3. Eastern Mediterranean
    4. Europe
    5. Southeast Asia

  263. According to the graph, which region had the highest total fertility rate in 1950:
    1. Africa
    2. The Americas
    3. Eastern Mediterranean
    4. Europe
    5. Southeast Asia

  264. According to the graph, which region has the greatest fertility reduction:
    1. Africa
    2. The Americas
    3. Eastern Mediterranean
    4. Europe
    5. Southeast Asia

  265. A dependency ratio is a comparison between the numbers of:
    1. working and non-working people
    2. old people and young people
    3. parents and children In class we discussed 9 possible explanations why some choose to have many children. Please list below four of those nine possible explanations.

    4. _________________________________________________

    5. _________________________________________________

    6. _________________________________________________

    7. _________________________________________________
    Use the following diagram to answer questions 1-4:
  266. Which of the curves represents exponential growth?
    1. a B. b C. c D. d E. e
  267. Which of the curves represents arithmetic growth?
    1. a B. b C. c D. d E. e
  268. The doubling time for curve “a” is:
    1. constant B. unpredictable and continually increasing C. unpredictable and continually decreasing D. predictable and continually increasing C. predictable and continually decreasing
  269. The doubling time for curve “c” is:
    1. constant B. unpredictable and continually increasing C. unpredictable and continually decreasing D. predictable and continually increasing at a steady incremental rate C. predictable and continually decreasing at a steady incremental rate
  270. Which of the following types of population growth patterns would best represent a group of wolves that enter a new, open habitat, and become a stable part of that ecosystem?
    1. exponential growth B. irruptive growth C. Malthusian growth D. chaotic or catastrophic growth E. logistic growth
  271. Which of the following types of population curves would best represent a group of wolves that enter a new, open habitat, and become a stable part of that ecosystem?
    1. norm-shaped curve B. S-shaped curve C. J-shaped curve D. cyclic oscillation-shaped curve E. survivorship curve
    Use the following diagram to answer questions 7-10.
  272. The dieback phase is marked by the letter:
    1. a B. b C. c D. d E. e
  273. The exponential phase is marked by the letter:
    1. a B. b C. c D. d E. e
  274. The overshoot is marked by the letter:
    1. a B. b C. c D. d E. e
  275. The horizontal line on the population oscillation graph represents:
    1. fecundity B. biotic potential C. predator populations D. arithmetic growth E. carrying capacity
    Use the diagram below to answer questions 11-14.
  276. Which of the curves represents a species that tend to die more-or-less randomly at any age?
    1. a B. b C. c D. d E. e
  277. Which of the curves represents a species that live out a full life span if they survive early life?
    1. a B. b C. c D. d E. e
  278. Which of the following statements best describes the species represented by curve “d”?
    1. Reproductive adult species have the highest rate of survival for this species. B. The rate of mortality is relatively constant throughout its life span. C. It is highly susceptible to mortality early in life. D. Once the individual reaches old age its survivorship decreases dramatically. E. It is highly susceptible to mortality early in life and late in life.
  279. Which of the following statements best describes the species represented by curve “c”?
    1. Reproductive adult species have the highest rate of survival for this species. B. The rate of mortality is relatively constant throughout its life span. C. It is highly susceptible to mortality early in life. D. Once the individual reaches old age its survivorship decreases dramatically. E. It is highly susceptible to mortality early in life and late in life.
  280. You are studying an organism that is a pioneer species, is an opportunist, and does not care for its offspring. This organism probably has a population growth strategy.
    1. logistic B. Malthusian C. chaotic D. catastrophic
  281. You are studying an organism that is a fairly large, lives fairly long, and cares for its offspring. This organism probably has a population growth strategy.
    1. logistic B. Malthusian C. chaotic D. catastrophic
  282. The world growth rate is about 1.4 percent. Therefore, the population is currently doubling about every years.
    1. 5 B. 10 C. 15 D. 50 E. 100
  283. Human population growth most closely resembles which of the following curves.
    1. Malthusian growth curve B. logistic growth curve C. S-shaped growth curve D. J-shaped growth curve
  284. The population theory held by Thomas Malthus was that the human population would:
    1. never reach its environment’s carrying capacity B. reach its environment’s carrying capacity and then maintain equilibrium C. outstrip its resources, then suffer starvation and misery D. develop a modern utopia
    Matching: Match the terms with the best answer below it. 20. Environmental resistance _____ 21. carrying capacity _____ 22. logistic growth _____ 23. exponential growth _____ 24. Malthusian growth _____ 25. biotic potential _____
    1. Factors that limit and produce population equilibrium.
    2. The maximum reproductive rate of an organism.
    3. Growth at a constant rate per unit time.
    4. Reflects the limits imposed on population growth by a finite resource base.
    5. The pattern described by a population explosion followed by a population crash. f

    6. The pattern described by a population coming into equilibrium with its resources.
    1. strip farming J) demography S) famine B. arithmetic growth K) terracing T) green revolution C. demographic transition L) replacement level fertility U) total fertility rate D. contour plowing M) no till V) dependency ratio E. environmental resistance N) age structure diagram W) sustainable agriculture F) biotic potential O) carrying capacity X) logistic growth G) food security P) genetic engineering Y) pronatalist pressure H) Malthusian growth Q) exponential growth Z) cover crops I) minimum tillage R) population momentum Match the terms above with the best answer below. The terms may be used more than once or not at all. 51) Factors that limit growth and produce population equilibrium. 52) A planting method that drills seeds directly into the soil. 53) The maximum reproductive rate of an organism. 54) Shaping the land to create level shelves of earth to hold water and soil. 55) Represents the potential for rapid population growth because of a large percentage of people in their pre-reproductive years. 56) 2.1 children per couple. 57) Growth at a constant amount per unit time. 58) Often leads to people eating their seed grain and slaughtering their breeding stock, thus “mortgaging” their future to survive the present. 59) Vital statistics about people (for example, population, ethnic background, birth and death rates). 60) The number of children born to the average woman during her lifetime. 61) The population that a species’ environment can support on a long-term basis. 62) The pattern described by a population explosion followed by a population crash. 63) Using molecular techniques to move genes from one organism to another. 64) This is becoming a growing problem in Sweden. 65) This describes the typical pattern of falling death rates and birth rates that usually accompany improved living conditions. 66) If achieved, this will eventually result in zero population growth. 67) Characterized by large-scale food shortages, mass starvation, and economic chaos. 68) A farming method used on gently sloping hills. 69) One of the main reasons that world food supplies have kept up with growing human population over the last few decades. 70) A combination of high inputs of fertilizer, water, and pesticide together with conventional plant breeding that increased crop production 3-4 times over the past 50 years.
      1. strip farming J) demography S) famine B. arithmetic growth K) terracing T) green revolution C. demographic transition L) replacement level fertility U) total fertility rate D. contour plowing M) no till V) dependency ratio E. environmental resistance N) age structure diagram W) sustainable agriculture F) biotic potential O) carrying capacity X) logistic growth G) food security P) genetic engineering Y) pronatalist pressure H) Malthusian growth Q) exponential growth Z) cover crops I) minimum tillage R) population momentum 71) The ability to obtain sufficient food on a day-to-day basis. 72) Aims to produce food and fiber on a sustainable basis and repair the damage caused by destructive practices. 73) The number of non-working compared to working individuals in a population. 74) A farming method in which different kinds of crops, usually broadleafs plants and grasses, are planted in alternating strips to help prevent erosion. 75) An expensive farming method of making very steep hillsides farmable. 76) Growth at a constant rate per unit time. 77) These are often planted after harvest to hold and protect soil, then are plowed under to provide green manure. 78) The pattern described by a population coming into equilibrium with their resources. 79) A planting method that reduces the number of times soil is disturbed and leaves up to 75% of debris between rows to prevent erosion. 80) A freebie.


  285. What is not true of viruses?
    1. they are nonliving
    2. they reproduce
    3. they cannot be attacked in cells
    4. their only defense is antibiotics

  286. Allergens are chemicals that:
    1. cause cancer
    2. trigger immune response
    3. alter genes
    4. cause birth defects

  287. Which type of radiation does not penetrate skin?
    1. gamma
    2. beta
    3. alpha
    4. X-rays

  288. The highest natural background radiation on earth has been found where?
    1. Iran
    2. Egypt
    3. India
    4. China

  289. The whole-body radiation dose in rem that is fatal to virtually all exposed victims:
    1. 200
    2. 100
    3. 500
    4. 1000

  290. How the stars and sun generate energy?
    1. fusion
    2. fission
    3. compression
    4. none of the above

  291. A kiloton is the explosive yield of how many tons of explosives?
    1. 1000
    2. 10,000
    3. 10
    4. 1,000,000

  292. When chemicals work against each other they are called:
    1. additive
    2. synergistic
    3. antagonistic

  293. Current US policy is not to use which type of weapon under any circumstance?
    1. Chemical
    2. Biological
    3. Nuclear

  294. Which type of radiation is the most serious external hazard?
    1. alpha radiation
    2. ultraviolet radiation
    3. gamma rays
    4. beta radiation

  295. DNA mutations from ionizing radiation hazards can cause:
    1. cancer
    2. sterility
    3. birth defects
    4. all of the above

  296. Fungal pathogens include all of the following except:
    1. Athletes Foot
    2. Candida
    3. Malaria
    4. Yeast Infections

  297. Which of the following is not true of Beta Radiation?
    1. Given off predominantly by light and medium weight nucclei.
    2. Minor external hazard but a faily serious internal hazard.
    3. Moderately high ionizing ability.
    4. Penetrates skin easily

  298. Global Average of background radiations is:
    1. 0.1 Rem per year
    2. 3 Rem per year
    3. 0.9 Rem per year
    4. 26 Rem per year

  299. What is correlation?
    1. the number of ways something can happen
    2. How well two sets of data relate to each other
    3. range of values where some measurement is most likely to fall
    4. How much data deviate from an ideal pattern

  300. For anecdotal evidence to be valid it must be
    1. Compiled by an accredited research group or university
    2. Follow all the rules under the First Law of Conservation of Biology
    3. be true and representive
    4. all of the above

  301. What is an example of a statistical fallacy involving Clustering?
    1. Nests of baby rattlesnakes having killed small children who played in outdoor play areas
    2. Clusters of alligators living in New York sewers
    3. Groups of gangs using headlight flashing to intiate new members
    4. Bad events such as airplane crashes, natural disasters, and famous deaths come in threes

  302. The extent that data deviates from an ideal pattern is called what?
    1. Probability
    2. Scatter
    3. Error Bounds
    4. Correlation

  303. The range of values where some a quantity is most likely to fall is known as:
    1. Probability
    2. Scatter
    3. Error Bounds
    4. Correlation

  304. How well two sets of data relate to each other is termed:
    1. Probability
    2. Scatter
    3. Error Bounds
    4. Correlation

  305. The number of ways something can happen divided by the number of ways everything can happen is what?
    1. Probability
    2. Scatter
    3. Error Bounds
    4. Correlation

  306. When you see a correlation between two data sets A and B:
    1. A causes B
    2. B causes A
    3. Both may be related to something else
    4. Any the above are possible

  307. What is evidence based on single noteworthy events or observations?
    1. Empirical data
    2. Accidental evidence
    3. Anecdotal evidence
    4. Standard Deviation

  308. Which is a chemical hazard?
    1. Prions
    2. Viruses
    3. Bacteria
    4. Teratogens

  309. Which is a factor in toxicity?
    1. Chemical composition
    2. Solubility and Mobility
    3. The body's ability to metabolize, sequester, or excrete
    4. All the above

  310. The number of Protons in a nucleus is its:
    1. Atomic weight
    2. Half Life
    3. Atomic number
    4. None of the above

  311. The number of Protons plus Neutrons in a nucleus is its:
    1. Atomic number
    2. Atomic weight
    3. Proton mass
    4. None of the above

  312. Malaria and sleeping sickness are both pathogens in which group?
    1. viruses
    2.  protista
    3. bacteria
    4. prions

  313. Which of the following chemical hazards alters genes?
    1. mutations
    2. teratogens
    3. allergens

  314. Protons + Neutrons = _________?
    1. atomic weight
    2. atomic number
    3. oxidation state

  315. Isotopes with _____ Half-Life give off more radiation per unit time.
    1. longer
    2. no
    3. shorter

  316. Natural ______ is how the stars (and the sun) generate energy.
    1. fission
    2. fusion
    3. decay

  317. The _______ is an amount of isotope that gives off a given amount of radiation per unit time
    1. Rem
    2. Rad
    3. Roentgen
    4. curie
    5. Half-life

  318. We describe probability as
    1. Two sets of data that relate to each other
    2. the likelihood of an event happening
    3. the range of values where some measurement is most likely to fall
    4. how much data deviates from an ideal pattern

  319. Which of the following best describes the characteristics of a virus?
    1. A virus is non-living and non-reproducing
    2. A virus is living but non-reproducing
    3. A virus is non living but reproducing
    4. A virus is living and reproducing

  320. Teratogens
    1. cause damage to the nervous system
    2. cause birth defects
    3. trigger immune responses
    4. has no effect

  321. Why taking an antibiotic for a cold is a bad idea:
    1. Antibiotics are useless against viral infections
    2. Excessive use of antibiotics helps create resistant pathogens
    3. Unused antibiotics are dumped into the environment
    4. All the above

  322. The splitting of massive nuclei is refered to as
    1. fusion
    2. fission
    3. radiation
    4. beta decay

  323. Elements with a short half-life of days or less
    1. are an extremely dangerous radiation hazard but decay quickly
    2. are able to migrate far during their lifetime
    3. are a minor high radiation hazard because they decay quickly
    4. are unlikely to cause cancer because they decay quickly

  324. Which one of the following is not a pathogen?
    1. prions
    2. viruses
    3. bacteria
    4. allergen

  325. The effects of radiation in the body include:
    1. Creation of reactive molecules called free radicals
    2. Direct damage to organic molecules
    3. Alteration of DNA
    4. All the above

  326. A standard deviation is
    1. The absolute limits beyond which measurements cannot fall
    2. Another name for average
    3. The range within which a value has about a 2/3 chance of falling
    4. The range within which a value has about a 99% chance of falling

  327. The dose of a chemical or radiation that kills 50% of those exposed to it is called:
    1. The threshold dose
    2. The half life
    3. Toxicity
    4. LD-50

  328. Which is true of clones?
    1. They only occur artificially
    2. Only plants can be cloned
    3. Clones cannot be generated from adult cells
    4. Clones have identical DNA

  329. Cloning has been proposed as a means of preservation of endangered species and restoration of extinct ones. Critics of this idea assert:
    1. Cloning will never work
    2. Cloning is too expensive
    3. Cloning won't preserve enough genetic diversity
    4. We would do better to focus on conservation and habitat preservation

  330. Terminator Genes are:
    1. Genes that kill an organism
    2. Genes that wipe out a species
    3. Genes that render seeds sterile
    4. Genes that self-destruct

  331. The vast majority of oil being produced today is from:
    1. Large fields discovered in the 1990's
    2. Large fields discovered in the 1970's and earlier
    3. Small fields discovered in the 1990's
    4. Small fields discovered in the 1970's and earlier

  332. Two thirds of the world's oil production comes from the _______ largest fields
    1. 10-15
    2. 50-60
    3. 200-300
    4. 5,000-8,000

  333. In 1956, M. King Hubbert predicted future U.S. oil production based on oil field statistics. As of 2003, his prediction
    1. Fell far short of actual production
    2. Was almost exactly on target
    3. Was far above actual production

  334. The most likely near-term limit on petroleum production is set by
    1. Running out of it
    2. Our ability to drill wells fast enough
    3. Our ability to produce it fast enough to meet demand
    4. Our ability to build pipelines and tankers

  335. Many organisms were never fossilized because:
    1. They had no hard parts
    2. They were rare and restricted
    3. Their enviroment was unsuitable for fossilization
    4. Any of the above

  336. Our globally rapid population growth is mostly due to
    1. World War I
    2. World War II
    3. Scientific & Industrial Revolutions
    4. Poverty

  337. In the 1990's life expectancy in places like North America, Australia, and Western Europe was approximately
    1. 75
    2. 65
    3. 50
    4. 45

  338. Pandas are not suitable for domestication due to
    1. Reclusive breeding
    2. Slow growth
    3. Tendency to panic
    4. Picky diets

  339. Jala, Mexico is best known for
    1. Giant ears of corn
    2. Black sheep
    3. Largest seed bank
    4. Hay terraces

  340. Which endangered species died in the Cincinnati Zoo on September 14, 1914?
    1. Heath Hen
    2. Dodo
    3. Passenger Pigeon
    4. Carolina Parakeet

  341. Which animal is not one of the Big Five most important domesticated animals?
    1. Horse
    2. Sheep
    3. Llama
    4. Ox

  342. The largest number of domesticated animals came from which one of the following regions?
    1. Eurasia
    2. Sub-Saharan Africa
    3. The Americas
    4. Australia

  343. Which one of these is NOT a domesticated carnivore?
    1. dog
    2. badger
    3. cat
    4. ferret

  344. What animals make up "The Big Five" key domestic species?
    1. sheep, goat, cattle, pig, and horse
    2. horse, dog, cattle, mongoose, donkey
    3. camel, donkey, water buffalo, llama, and yak
    4. chicken, hen, passenger pigeon, cattle egret, and carolina parakeet

  345. Which is true of natural reserves?
    1. small reserves are better because they provide more varied habitat
    2. a few large reserves are better than a number of small reserves
    3. reserves should be far apart so species are spread out more
    4. long and linear reserves are better than circular ones

  346. The theory of island biogeography has also been called:
    1. First Law of Genetic Biodiversity
    2. First Law of Conservation Biology
    3. First Law of Natural Selection
    4. First Law of the 6th Extinction

  347. Total fertility rate is the number of children born:
    1. in a population during entire generation
    2. in a population during a single year
    3. to average woman per year
    4. to average woman during her lifetime

  348. Populations were held in check up to the middle ages by:
    1. low fertility rates
    2. cultuarally- imposed family planning practices
    3. disease, famine, war
    4. religious restrictions on marriage

  349. Which is most true of one of the demographic worlds?
    1. Less-developed countries are poor, young, and rapidly growing
    2. Less-developed countries are wealthy, old and mostly shrinking
    3. More-developed countries are mostly in Africa and Asia
    4. More-developed countries are poor, young, and rapidly growing

  350. This animal was the original "penguin"?
    1. Yak
    2. Steller's Sea Cow
    3. Greak Auk
    4. no correct answer

  351. Characteristic(s) of C4 grasses are
    1. Prefer cool climate
    2. Prefer warm climate
    3. Are rich in silica particles
    4. Both b and c

  352. This group believes that we are approaching the earth's carrying capacity:
    1. Pronatalists
    2. Neo-Malthusians
    3. Neo-Marxists
    4. no correct answer

  353. When do most demographers expect earth's population to stabilize?
    1. 100 years
    2. 10 years
    3. 1,000 years
    4. it never will

  354. What is the average fertility rate of a women in the US?
    1. 4
    2. 2
    3. 6 or 7
    4. Less than 1

  355. Which is a factor that increases the desire to have children?
    1. Children are a source of pleasure, pride and comfort
    2. Children are a source of support for elderly parents
    3. Children give families more social status
    4. All of the above

  356. How many large seed grass species are there?
    1. Over 100
    2. About 50
    3. About 20
    4. About 10

  357. How many of the large seed grass species are found in the Eurasian Mediterranean?
    1. Almost all
    2. Over half
    3. About 1/4
    4. Only a few

  358. Which one is a fiber crop?
    1. Flax
    2. Pea
    3. Chickpea
    4. Barley

  359. Which is most likely to make animals unsuitable for domestication?
    1. Fast growth rate
    2. Picky Diet
    3. Low trophic level
    4. Not Territorial

  360. This can be called the first high-tech extinction because railroads and the telegraph played a key role in over-exploitation of the species:
    1. Passenger Pigeon
    2. Heath Hen
    3. Dodo
    4. Great Auk

  361. What is NOT an example of pronatalist pressure?
    1. When women have more opportunities to earn a salary, they are less likely to have children.
    2. Children are a source of pleasure, pride, and comfort
    3. Having children increases social status
    4. Children can assist with farm labor and elder care
    5. All of the above

  362. The population growth rate is higher in _____?
    1. more developed countries
    2. less developed countries
    3. the most developed countries
    4. none, population growth varies little between countries

  363. What is the primary cause of most population growth in the last 300 years?
    1. Immigration
    2. Change in climate
    3. Declining mortality rates
    4. Government policies

  364. At what level do most demographers expect the world population will stabilize?
    1. 6-8 billion people
    2. 8-13 billion people
    3. 13-16 billion people
    4. None of the above

  365. ________ has the largest variety of large seed grasses.
    1. The Eurasian Mediterranean
    2. North America
    3. South America
    4. Australia
    5. Sub-Saharan Africa

  366. Animals that have low levels of thyroxine tend to be all of these except:
    1. difficult to domesticate
    2. easy to domesticate
    3. large litter producing animals
    4. retain juvenile forms into adulthood
    5. have spotted or solid color coats

  367. Some animals self-domesticate because _______.
    1. These animals seek human contact
    2. These animals see humans as members of their group
    3. Areas near human settlements are usually free from predators
    4. None of the above

  368. Megafauna _______ when humans arrived
    1. were domesticated
    2. coexisted with humans
    3. often disappeared
    4. had a new lunch option
    5. none of the above

  369. Extinctions are caused mainly by ______.
    1. Epidemics
    2. Evolution of new competitors
    3. Habitat disruption or modification
    4. None of these Non-Student Questions

  370. The world human population reached 1 billion around:
    1. AD 1
    2. 1500
    3. 1700
    4. 1800
    5. 1900

  371. Zero population growth rate is slightly over two children per couple because:
    1. we always need slightly more young people
    2. the older generation is dying
    3. some children die and some couples do not have children
    4. that is as low as birth rates can reasonably be expected to get

  372. Women who _________ are least likely to have many children.
    1. cannot afford children
    2. live where many children die young
    3. are subordinate to their husbands
    4. are able to earn an income for themselves
    5. all of the above

  373. The number of different kinds of organisms within an individual community or ecosystem is known as:
    1. genetic diversity
    2. ecological diversity
    3. species diversity

  374. The total number of living species is estimated to be:
    1. between 500,000 and 1 million
    2. between 3 million and 50 million
    3. between 30 million and 100 million
    4. over 100 million

  375. Approximately how many species have been identified on Earth?
    1. about 100,000
    2. about 500,000
    3. about 1.5 million
    4. about 3 million
    5. about 30 million

  376. Habitat fragmentation usually leads to a(n):
    1. decrease in biodiversity
    2. reduction in the number of introduced species.
    3. increase in biodiversity due to the isolated populations.
    4. more stable environment.

  377. Mediterranean climates were critical for the origin of agriculture because they:
    1. Favor plants with large fruit
    2. Favor great varieties of plants
    3. Make plants more dependent on humans
    4. Favor plants with seeds that can survive long dry spells

  378. Demographic Transition refers to:
    1. Change from monarchy to democracy
    2. Change from central planning to capitalism
    3. Change from religious to secular value systems
    4. Change from rapid to slow population growth

  379. The principal reasons North America and Africa did not develop a large variety of domesticated animals:
    1. Eurasians are smarter
    2. North American and African cultural values interfered with domestication
    3. There were serious biological reasons why indigenous animals could not be domesticated
    4. Eurasians were better informed about their environment

  380. A geographic reason that favored animal and plant domestication in Eurasia was:
    1. A north-south orientation that craeted a wide variety of ecological zones
    2. An east-west orientation that created a broad band of similar climate
    3. Its large area provided greater protection from natural disasters
    4. Absence of dry climate areas

  381. The Law of Island Biodiversity states that:
    1. Islands have less biodiversity than similar size mainland areas
    2. Islands have more biodiversity than similar size mainland areas
    3. Islands all have about the same biodiversity
    4. Island organisms are better adapted than mainland organisms

  382. One of the reasons for the Law of Island Biodiversity is:
    1. Islands have lower rates of species immigration
    2. Islands have higher rates of species immigration
    3. Islands have more rapid rates of evolution
    4. Islands have less rapid rates of evolution

  383. Another of the reasons for the Law of Island Biodiversity is:
    1. Islands have lower rates of extinction because they are isolated
    2. Islands have higher rates of extinction because species are more geographically restricted
    3. Islands have lower rates of extinction because there is less competition
    4. Islands have higher rates of extinction because species are more densely packed

  384. The principal reason many people are concerned about the proliferation of specialized and mass-produced crops is:
    1. Seeds are too expensive for poor farmers
    2. They give big business a monopoly on food production
    3. These crops are less nutritious than other crops
    4. We are in danger of losing genetic diversity in our crops

  385. Remoras are small fish that attach themselves to large fish like sharks. They eat scraps missed by the shark but neither benefit nor harm the shark. This is an example of:
    1. Predation
    2. Commensalism
    3. Parasitism
    4. Symbiosis

  386. Termites can digest wood only because they have microorganisms in their stomachs that break the wood down. This is an example of:
    1. Predation
    2. Commensalism
    3. Parasitism
    4. Symbiosis

  387. Catbirds lay their eggs in the nests of other birds, and the young catbirds are raised by the nest builders and push the other young birds out of the nest. This is an example of:
    1. Predation
    2. Commensalism
    3. Parasitism
    4. Symbiosis

  388. Chewing lice (like Strigiphilus garylarsoni) live on birds and eat dead skin and feathers. They neither help nor harm the bird. This is an example of:
    1. Predation
    2. Commensalism
    3. Parasitism
    4. Symbiosis

  389. The Tasmanian Devil of Australia (not the cartoon kinD. is very similar to a North American wolverine in appearance, temperament and lifestyle. This is an example of:
    1. Divergent evolution
    2. Convergent evolution
    3. Batesian mimicry
    4. Mullerian mimicry

  390. The highly venomous coral snake and the harmless king snake are both brightly colored in red, yellow, and black. This is an example of:
    1. Divergent evolution
    2. Convergent evolution
    3. Batesian mimicry
    4. Mullerian mimicry

  391. Three otherwise unrelated species of highly venomous snake all have the same conspicuous color scheme. This is an example of:
    1. Divergent evolution
    2. Convergent evolution
    3. Batesian mimicry
    4. Mullerian mimicry

  392. After the dinosaurs became extinct, mammals and birds rapidly gave rise to a large number of new forms. This is an example of:
    1. Divergent evolution
    2. Convergent evolution
    3. Batesian mimicry
    4. Mullerian mimicry Thanks to your stellar performance in this course, you have been hired by MegaBlaster Studios as a science consultant to review scripts. How would you rate the script ideas in the next four questions?

  393. Aliens are kidnapping humans and taking them back to their home planet to raise for food.
    1. There is insufficient biomass to sustain the organism
    2. Carnivores don't eat that much and that rapidly
    3. Humans are at too high a trophic level to be a good primary source of food.
    4. The script does not violate any major principles of ecology

  394. An escaped animal on a cruise ship kills and eats many of the passengers over a span of several days.
    1. There is insufficient biomass to sustain the organism
    2. Carnivores don't eat that much and that rapidly
    3. Humans are at too high a trophic level to be a good primary source of food.
    4. The script does not violate any major principles of ecology

  395. A genetically engineered plant threatens ecological chaos by displacing crop plants.
    1. There is insufficient biomass to sustain the organism
    2. Carnivores don't eat that much and that rapidly
    3. Humans are at too high a trophic level to be a good primary source of food.
    4. The script does not violate any major principles of ecology

  396. A research station on the Antarctic ice cap encounters a huge predator that lives in the ice.
    1. There is insufficient biomass to sustain the organism
    2. Carnivores don't eat that much and that rapidly
    3. Humans are at too high a trophic level to be a good primary source of food.
    4. The script does not violate any major principles of ecology

  397. A Critical Environmental Factor is:
    1. The most abundant food source
    2. The most significant predator
    3. The highest temperature an organism can stand
    4. The factor in shortest supply

  398. Which can be described as a theory?
    1. Ptolemy's idea that the planets went around the earth on circles attached to other circles
    2. The idea that global warming might be beneficial by creating longer growing seasons
    3. The idea that all mater is made up of atoms
    4. All the above

  399. Most of our animal domestication was the result of:
    1. Deliberate selection of desirable traits by humans
    2. Unsystematic selection for desirable traits by humans
    3. Unconscious and unintentional selection by humans
    4. Natural selection with no human intervention at all

  400. Creating desirable strains of roses is mostly a matter of:
    1. Deliberate selection of desirable traits by humans
    2. Unsystematic selection for desirable traits by humans
    3. Unconscious and unintentional selection by humans
    4. Natural selection with no human intervention at all

  401. Quantities that grow exponentially grow according to
    1. The First Law of Thermodynamics
    2. The Second Law of Thermodynamics
    3. The Rule of 70
    4. A fixed quantity per year

  402. Logistic growth is also described as
    1. S curve
    2. J curve
    3. Cyclic curve
    4. Arithmetic

  403. The Rule of 70 says:
    1. Populations double in 70 years
    2. Populations grow 70 per cent per year
    3. Populations double in 70 years times annual percent growth rate
    4. Populations double in 70 years divided by annual percent growth rate

  404. Using The Rule of 70, if you have 1000 dollars in the bank at 5% interest, it will double in:
    1. 70 years
    2. 5 years
    3. 14 years
    4. 1.4 years

  405. The principal definition of a species is a group of organisms that
    1. Look alike
    2. Live in the same area
    3. Occupy a continuous stretch of territory
    4. Can interbreed among themselves

  406. Exaptation is:
    1. Utilization of existing organs for new functions
    2. Adaptation of organisms to new environments
    3. Loss of little-used organs
    4. Growth of completely new organs

  407. On a high mountain in the Rockies you find a group of flowers that are identical in form and genetics to flowers now found in the Arctic. You'd best describe this isolated group as a:
    1. Species
    2. Population
    3. Race
    4. Genus

  408. Why do cave organisms commonly lose their sight?
    1. Eyes are too vulnerable to injury in the dark
    2. Sight is a very energy-demanding function
    3. Their eyes evolve to serve other functions
    4. Eyes are too vulnerable to disease in those settings

  409. On an island you find birds that are noticeably different in color from similar birds on the mainland, but their habits are identical and they crossbreed easily with the mainland birds. You'd best describe this group as a:
    1. Species
    2. Class
    3. Race
    4. Genus

  410. Any given trophic level needs about ________ as much energy as the level below
    1. Half
    2. Twice
    3. Ten percent
    4. Ten times

  411. The principal reason for the above answer is:
    1. Most of the energy in food goes into sustaining the organism, not building tissue
    2. There are more organisms at higher trophic levels
    3. There are fewer organisms at higher trophic levels
    4. Higher trophic levels include all the biomass from the levels below them.

  412. A pesticide gets into the land and water of an area and is taken up by all organisms in the food chain. Measurements show that contaminated fish are hazardous to eat but cattle that eat the grass are much less so. Why might this happen?
    1. Fish are much more sensitive to contaminants
    2. Fish are at a higher trophic level and accumulate much more of the pesticide
    3. Cows have immune systems that break down contaminants
    4. Pesticides wash off the grass and into the water

  413. The proposal to relieve world hunger by getting food from the sea will not work because:
    1. The seas are not big enough
    2. Fish are at a high trophic level and require a lot of biomass to grow
    3. Productivity in the open oceans is very low
    4. Both b. and c.

  414. Primary productivity is the rate of converting:
    1. Sunlight into chemical energy
    2. Biomass into food
    3. Biomass into the next higher trophic level
    4. Nutrients into energy

  415. Primary productivity is highest in:
    1. Tropical Forests
    2. Temperate forests
    3. Grasslands
    4. Tundra

  416. Primary productivity is highest in:
    1. Open Oceans
    2. Coastal waters
    3. Lakes
    4. Reefs and Estuaries

  417. Going from equator to pole, which decreases?
    1. Species diversity
    2. Abundance within species

  418. Going from equator to pole, which increases?
    1. Species diversity
    2. Abundance within species

  419. If two species are in the same place and need the same resource, which is the least likely outcome?
    1. One will migrate away
    2. One will become extinct in that area
    3. They will share the resource evenly
    4. They will partition the resource so that each uses slightly different parts of it

  420. When generalist species and specialist species meet, who usually wins?
    1. Generalists
    2. Specialists

  421. Why?
    1. Specialists are more attuned to their setting and thus better adapted
    2. Specialists have highly developed traits that generalists lack
    3. Specialists cannot cope with changed conditions as well as generalists
    4. Specialists lack the genetic diversity of generalists

  422. The role a species plays in a biological community is its:
    1. Habitat
    2. Adaptation
    3. Species Diversity
    4. Ecological Niche

  423. When individual organisms adapt, they change so they can cope with a changed environment and:
    1. The changes are passed on to their offspring
    2. The changes are not passed on to their offspring
    3. The change is due to a mutation
    4. The change can be as great as necessary to survive

  424. When populations adapt, they change so they can cope with a changed environment and:
    1. The changes are passed on to their offspring
    2. The changes result from selection of pre-existing genetic diversity
    3. The change can eventually lead to speciation
    4. All of these

  425. Which is true of mutations?
    1. They are changes in an organism's DNA code
    2. The chance of a random beneficial change is small
    3. Radical changes are usually harmful
    4. All of these

  426. In the Five Kingdom System now used in many biology texts, which is not a kingdom?
    1. Animals
    2. Plants
    3. Vertebrates
    4. Protista (one-celled organisms)
    5. Fungi

  427. In classifying a cat, which of the following lists its classification groups in correct order from highest to lowest?
    1. Carnivora, Chordata, Mammalia
    2. Mammalia, Carnivora, Chordata
    3. Carnivora, Mammalia, Chordata
    4. Chordata, Mammalia, Carnivora

  428. Malthusian growth consists of:
    1. Population explosions followed by population crashes.
    2. Growth toward a steady limit
    3. Continually accelerating growth
    4. Growth at a steady rate

  429. Logistic growth consists of:
    1. Population explosions followed by population crashes.
    2. Growth toward a steady limit
    3. Continually accelerating growth
    4. Growth at a steady rate

  430. The tendency of some growth to flatten out with time is due to a factor called:
    1. Exponential decay
    2. Environmental resistance
    3. Predation
    4. Malthusian strategy

  431. Saying an event is "random" is least likely to mean what?
    1. The process is too complex to predict accurately
    2. We have insufficient data to make a prediction
    3. The event has no meaning or purpose
    4. We can't predict the event any more accurately than statistical chance

  432. The Second Law of Thermodynamics implies
    1. Order cannot arise naturally
    2. Entropy can decrease locally if there is an offsetting increase elsewhere
    3. Entropy is the same thing as disorder
    4. Systems beome more orderly with time

  433. The total length of DNA in a human being is comparable in size to:
    1. A few centimeters
    2. Your height
    3. Width of the United States
    4. The Solar System
    5. The galaxy

  434. Our cells have structures called mitochondria that are believed by many scientists to have once been independent organisms. One line of evidence for this idea is:
    1. Mitochondria can move
    2. Mitochondria can survive on their own
    3. Mitochondria have their own DNA
    4. Mitochondria contain chlorophyll

  435. Convection is:
    1. a means of transporting heat by moving hot and cold material
    2. a force that causes storms to travel curving paths
    3. the force that drives ocean currents
    4. related to earth's rotation
    5. the process that creates the ozone layer

  436. What drives convection?:
    1. sunlight
    2. earth's rotation
    3. buoyancy
    4. pressure deep in the earth
    5. nuclear reactions

  437. Earth's atmospheric circulation is driven mostly by:
    1. waves in the ocean
    2. evaporation of water from the oceans
    3. unequal heating by the sun
    4. the earth's magnetic field

  438. The principal reservoir for storing heat on the earth is the.
    1. lithosphere
    2. biosphere
    3. stratosphere
    4. hydrosphere

  439. What is one of the roles of water in the earth's interior?
    1. lowers the melting point of rocks
    2. raises the melting point of rocks
    3. makes rocks stronger
    4. carries material outward from the core

  440. How can rain forests be so lush if the soil is so poor?
    1. They get nutrients from rain water
    2. The organisms have evolved to do without soil nutrients
    3. Human slash-and-burn agriculture returns nutrients to the soil
    4. The ecosystem is very effective at recycling nutrients

  441. Which factors enter into soil classification?
    1. age of the soil
    2. parent material
    3. climate and drainage
    4. all the above

  442. Why small particles weather faster than large ones:
    1. They have more surface area for chemical reactions
    2. They can be more easily eaten by soil organisms
    3. They are easier to break mechanically
    4. They are made of more soluble minerals

  443. To prevent long-term pollution of ground water, it is most important to protect:
    1. The recharge zone
    2. The area around the well
    3. Streams and lakes
    4. Springs and seeps

  444. Most of the earth's liquid fresh water is:
    1. Lakes and rivers
    2. ground water
    3. Ocean water
    4. Glacial ice

  445. The energy that drives surface ocean currents such as the Gulf Stream comes from:
    1. Salinity variations
    2. Density differences
    3. Coriolis force
    4. Wave activity
    5. Prevailing winds

  446. When do we first see evidence for liquid water on earth?
    1. A billion years ago
    2. 500 million years ago
    3. Two billion years ago
    4. As far back as we can see

  447. The carbonate-silicate cycle has probably helped moderate earth’s temperatures. Which of the following is essential for the cycle to operate?
    1. Liquid water
    2. Life
    3. Abundant calcium-bearing rocks
    4. Abundant carbon dioxide

  448. According to most models of stellar evolution, when the earth formed, the sun was:
    1. Twice as bright
    2. The same brightness
    3. One tenth as bright
    4. About 30 percent less bright

  449. Most of the United States is situated in which zone of prevailing winds?
    1. trade winds
    2. doldrums
    3. subpolar easterlies
    4. horse latitudes
    5. westerlies

  450. The triatomic form of oxygen (O3) is known as:
    1. argon
    2. ozone
    3. thermopause
    4. molecular oxygen
    5. chlorofluorocarbon

  451. There is disagreement about every aspect of global warming except one. Which is the one point everyone agrees?
    1. Accuracy of the computer models
    2. Whether the change is man-made or natural
    3. Carbon dioxide has increased in the last few centuries
    4. The role of clouds in moderating global warming
    5. Whether the change will be harmful or beneficial

  452. Which one of the following is the most abundant gas in the atmosphere?
    1. oxygen
    2. nitrogen
    3. argon
    4. hydrogen
    5. carbon dioxide

  453. When solar radiation passes through the Earth’s atmosphere, the ozone in the atmosphere effectively absorbs this portion of the solar radiation.
    1. Ultraviolet radiation
    2. Visible radiation
    3. Infrared radiation

  454. This greenhouse gas is produced through the decay of organic matter.
    1. water vapor
    2. sulfur dioxide
    3. methane
    4. chloroflourocarbons
    5. nitrous oxides

  455. This gas contributes to depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer.
    1. water vapor
    2. carbon dioxide
    3. methane
    4. chloroflourocarbons
    5. nitrous oxides

  456. This is the greenhouse gas that humans have the least control over because it is so naturally abundant.
    1. water vapor
    2. carbon dioxide
    3. methane
    4. chloroflourocarbons
    5. nitrous oxides

  457. This greenhouse has is primarily the result of the burning of fossil fuels.
    1. carbon dioxide
    2. nitrous oxides
    3. methane
    4. cholorflourocarbons

  458. Many people are surprised by this, but the strongest greenhouse gas is:
    1. carbon dioxide
    2. water vapor
    3. chlorofluorocarbons
    4. methane
    5. nitrous oxides

  459. Legumes are plants whose roots contain bacteria that can fix nitrogen and naturally fertilize plants. Which of the following are legumes?
    1. Beans and alfalfa
    2. Potatoes and beets
    3. Most trees
    4. Grasses and root crops

  460. Contour plowing and strip farming are methods designed to:
    1. Prevent weed spreading
    2. Improve plowing efficiency
    3. Improve harvesting efficiency
    4. Prevent water and soil loss

  461. Sulfur in the environment is a major contributor to what problem? (pick the best answer)
    1. Habitat destruction
    2. Global warming
    3. Ground water depletion
    4. Acid rain
    5. Soil erosion

  462. The charge on an atom that has gained or lost electrons is called its:
    1. Atomic number
    2. Atomic weight
    3. Oxidation state
    4. Quantum spin number
    5. Electronegativity

  463. Which is a carbon sink?
    1. Combustion of Fossil Fuels
    2. Biomass
    3. Animal respiration
    4. Weathering of carbonate rocks

  464. What can cause nitrogen and oxygen to combine?
    1. Extreme temperatures
    2. Photosynthesis
    3. Ultraviolet light
    4. Presence of water

  465. Why is nitrogen needed as a fertilizer if it makes up 79% of the atmosphere?
    1. There is such intense competition for it
    2. Plants can't use it in its gaseous form
    3. Plants need more than the atmosphere can supply
    4. Plants have no way to take in nitrogen from the air

  466. Which element is most likely to be a limiting factor in biological production?
    1. Carbon
    2. Nitrogen
    3. Hydrogen
    4. Sulfur
    5. Phosphorus

  467. Which element's cycle has no atmospheric component?
    1. Carbon
    2. Nitrogen
    3. Hydrogen
    4. Sulfur
    5. Phosphorus

  468. Regarding the Ogallala (High Plains) Aquifer:
    1. its water is replaced on an annual basis through precipitation.
    2. its water originally came from ocean water seepage.
    3. it is a nonrenewable resource.
    4. The water table is falling

  469. When we say dry regions “mine” water, we mean:
    1. They must drill wells to reach a water source.
    2. They must locate underground water because there is no surface water available.
    3. They extract water faster than it is replenished.
    4. The water is rich in dissolved minerals.

  470. When plants create organic molecules, the element most likely to be left over as a waste product is:
    1. hydrogen
    2. sulfur
    3. carbon
    4. phosphorus
    5. oxygen

  471. The biggest single cause of infant mortality worldwide is
    1. diarrhea from contaminated water
    2. war
    3. insect-borne diseases
    4. skin infections

  472. Women in developing countries spend up to ________ getting water
    1. one day a year
    2. 12 hours a day
    3. one week a year
    4. 1/3 of their time

  473. Most ground water is derived from
    1. permeable rocks called aquifers
    2. hard rocks like granite
    3. underground streams and rivers
    4. water-deposited rocks like shale

  474. Underground Streams are
    1. rare, short, and small
    2. the source of 10% of the earth's water
    3. the source of half the earth's water
    4. the source of most of the earth's water

  475. Artesian aquifers are:
    1. pure
    2. uncontaminated
    3. free of minerals
    4. pressurized
    5. all of the above

  476. In the Green Bay area, the water table ________ after a pipeline from Lake Michigan was built
    1. rose
    2. dropped
    3. was completely replenished
    4. was unaffected

  477. In recent years the water table in the Green Bay area has fallen due to
    1. dry summers and lack of recharge
    2. diversion of water into other aquifer layers
    3. dams on the Wolf River
    4. increased water use by suburbs

  478. The ground water east of the Niagara Escarpment is separated from deeper aquifers by impervious rocks. This is an example of a ____________ aquifer
    1. artesian
    2. perched
    3. elevated
    4. impermeable
    5. permeable

  479. Open-channel aquifers (caverns, open fractures, etc.) are very fragile because
    1. they contain many rare cave organisms
    2. the rock formations are weakened by the fractures
    3. acid rain can dissolve the rocks quickly
    4. contaminants can move quickly over long distances

  480. Why do we think carbon is special as a basis for life?
    1. it is so abundant
    2. its atoms can bond in so many different ways
    3. its chemicals are so soluble in water
    4. carbon bonds are unusually stable

  481. Many elements can assume more than one oxidation state. This fact enables them to be used to do all the following except:
    1. trigger chemical reactions
    2. convert one element into another
    3. store energy
    4. store information

  482. Some people seriously argue global warming may not be all bad. In support, they point to:
    1. reduced energy demands
    2. longer growing seasons
    3. more biomass
    4. more habitable land
    5. all of the above

  483. Someone argues that man-made chemicals can't be the cause of depletion of the ozone layer because hydrogen chloride from volcanoes is far more abundant. You respond with:
    1. a blank stare
    2. admitting he's right
    3. he's wrong; man-made chemicals are more abundant
    4. the chlorine in man-made chemicals is bonded more weakly than in hydrogen chloride so it reacts more easily with ozone

  484. Gaia is:
    1. the Greek name for the goddess of the earth
    2. the root from which we get words like geography or geology
    3. the name of a theory proposed by James Lovelock
    4. the idea that the earth is a self-regulating system
    5. all the above  

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