Exam Bank 2: People in the Environment

Steven Dutch, Natural and Applied Sciences, University of Wisconsin - Green Bay
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  1. Which of the following does not occur as a result of using reduced tillage farming?
    1. Water is conserved
    2. Soil is preserved
    3. Incidence of insects and weeds is decreased

  2. Contour plowing and strip farming are methods designed to:
    1. Prevent weed spreading
    2. Improve plowing efficiency
    3. Improve harvesting efficiency
    4. Prevent water and soil loss

  3. Another word for cover crop is:
    1. mulch
    2. strip farming
    3. green manure
    4. shade planting

  4. Which of the following land management techniques is best used on steeply sloping croplands?
    1. Contour plowing
    2. Strip farming
    3. terracing

  5. Which of the following reduced tillage systems creates ridges into which the seed is planted while leaving crop residue in the furrow?
    1. Strip farming
    2. terracing
    3. contour plowing

  6. Which of the following is the best way to ensure soil health?
    1. Maintain clean, open ground between rows
    2. Strip farming and leaving residues on fields after harvest
    3. Clearing fields immediately after harvesting
    4. Establishing ridges running up and down hills

  7. In order to work well, all reduced tillage systems typically require:
    1. An adequate supply of water
    2. A ample amount of fertilizer
    3. The use of new hybrids
    4. The use of pesticides

  8. Which of the following is a form of physical deterioration of soil?
    1. salinization
    2. wind erosion
    3. nutrient depletion
    4. compaction
    5. water erosion

  9. When soils are overused, nutrient depletion often occurs. This is an example of:
    1. Physical deterioration
    2. Chemical deterioration
    3. Wind erosion
    4. Water erosion

  10. Water has a difficult time infiltrating into the soil when this form of degradation occurs:
    1. compaction
    2. nutrient depletion
    3. salinization

  11. One of the drawbacks of leaving crop residues on a field after harvest is increased:
    1. Cost due to high cost of fertilizers
    2. Pest and disease problems
    3. Salinization
    4. Wind erosion

  12. The efficiency of irrigation water is ____ in most countries. One of the primary reasons for this is:
    1. high…the abundance of water
    2. high…the careful use of water because it is so expensive
    3. high…the technology to distribute the water where it is needed most is available
    4. low…the lack of availability of technology to distribute the water where it is needed most.
    5. low…evaporative losses from unprotected water channeling

  13. Which of the following is not likely to result from land degradation?
    1. lowered biodiversity
    2. decreased yield
    3. increased infiltration of water into the soil
    4. lowered carrying capacity on rangeland

  14. Overfertilization is a very real problem that often results in:
    1. leaching/runoff of nitrates/phosphates
    2. tremendous yields that, in turn, negatives affects the supply side of global markets
    3. toxic concentrations of nutrients stored in the grain itself

  15. Genetic engineering moves selected genes from one organism to another. In agriculture, geneticists have been working on ways in which to genetically alter crops.  Which of the following regions has had the greatest success in increasing food production since approximately 1961?
    1. Sub-Sahara Africa
    2. Russia
    3. Latin America
    4. Asia

  16. Which of the following areas is projected to face the gravest food shortages as we approach the year 2010?
    1. Sub-Sahara Africa
    2. South Asia
    3. East/Southeast Asia
    4. Oceania

  17. Although they may not be the most nutritious crops, which of the following crops are cultivated due to their resistance to drought?
    1. barley and rye
    2. cassava and sweet potato
    3. sorghum and millet
    4. wheat and rye

  18. What is the basis of the statement “We could feed more people if we eat grain rather than feeding it to livestock”?
    1. first law of thermodynamics
    2. second law of thermodynamics
    3. biocentrism
    4. anthropocentrism

  19. The most efficient protein source available to humans, in terms of converting feed grain to protein, is:
    1. Fish
    2. Poultry
    3. Pork
    4. Beef

  20. Which of the following regions consumes an inequitable percentage of meat and milk?
    1. India
    2. Sudan
    3. Indonesia
    4. Japan

  21. In developed countries, improved agricultural yields can be attributed to all of the following except:
    1. more intense cropping techniques (planting two crops each year)
    2. pesticide use
    3. increased irrigation
    4. better crop varieties and hybrids
    5. increased use of fertilizers

  22. In developing countries, greater agricultural yields can be attributed to all of the following except:
    1. more intense cropping techniques (planting two crops each year)
    2. reduced soil erosion techniques
    3. new and better crop varieties and hybrids

  23. The world as a hole is reaching the limit of land that could be converted into agriculturally productive land. Potentially, which of the following areas has the highest percentage of land that could put into agricultural production.
    1. East Asia
    2. Latin America
    3. Africa

  24. There are many reasons behind the starvation that is occurring in Sub-Sahara Africa. From the perspective of Sub-Sahara Africa, the least of these problems is:
    1. drought/climate
    2. overpopulation
    3. war
    4. poverty
    5. government mismanagement

  25. Per capita cropland is becoming an important issue because we need to feed a growing population. Which of the following regions faces the greatest challenge in terms of having the lowest cropland per capita?
    1. Africa
    2. Asia
    3. Latin America
    4. Oceania
  26. The world human population reached 1 billion around:
    1. 1400
    2. 1500
    3. 1600
    4. 1700
    5. 1800

  27. According to the U.S. Census Bureau, in July 1999 the world’s population passed:
    1. 6 million
    2.  78 million
    3. 6  billion
    4.  78 billion

  28. Historically, up until the middle ages, populations were mostly limited by:
    1. low fertility rates
    2. culturally-imposed family planning practices
    3. disease, famine, and war
    4. religious restrictions on marriage
    5. infanticide

  29. Ninety percent of the world’s population growth in the 21st century is expected to occur in:
    1. developing countries
    2. China
    3. India
    4. Developed countries

  30. Russia’s population is declining because:
    1. there is a one-child policy similar to the one in China and Thailand
    2. there has been a massive education campaign to reduce births
    3. the standard of living has decreased leading to lower infant mortality and lower birth rates
    4. Russia’s population is not declining
    5. the standard of living has decreased leading to higher death rates and lower birth rates

  31. The zero population growth rate is slightly over two children per couple because:
    1. we always need slightly more young people
    2. the older generation is dying
    3. some children die and some couples do not have children
    4. that is as low as birth rates can reasonably be expected to get

  32. Women who _________ are least likely to have many children.
    1. cannot afford children
    2. live where many children die young
    3. are subordinate to their husbands
    4. are able to earn an income for themselves
    5. all of the above

  33. There is some evidence that population growth today is ________ rather than _______.
    1. slowing slightly…continuing to accelerate
    2. continuing to accelerate…slowing slightly
    3. increasing…leveling off
    4. leveling off…decreasing Use the following age structure diagrams to answer the next 3 questions.

  34. The population represented by the age structure diagram on the right will:
    1. have a large population of old people soon
    2. not grow much in the coming years
    3. soon begin to decline
    4. grow substantially in the future
    5. grow slowly in the future

  35. The age structure diagram on the right would most accurately represent the population of:
    1. the U.S.
    2. Kenya
    3. Japan
    4. Sweden

  36. The age structure diagram on the left represents a population whose birth rates:
    1. have not changed for many years
    2. have recently decreased
    3. are gradually increasing
    4. are sharply increasing

  37. Which of the following is characteristic of a country with a fast growing population:
    1. is often involved in political or economic crises
    2. often has hyperinflation
    3. has a well-organized means of sanitation
    4. has a high crime rate

  38. The key to reducing human population lies in improving the living standards of the world’s poor.
    1. Most likely to be said by an economist
    2. Most likely to be said by an ecologist
    3. Most likely to be said by an sociologist
  39.  Expanding human population will no doubt lead to resource depletion and environmental degradation.
    1. Most likely to be said by an economist
    2. Most likely to be said by an ecologist
    3. Most likely to be said by an sociologist
  40. Current global shortages are a result of greed, waste, and oppression.
    1. Most likely to be said by an economist
    2. Most likely to be said by an ecologist
    3. Most likely to be said by an sociologist
  41.  The key to reducing human population lies in immediate, worldwide birth control.
    1. Most likely to be said by an economist
    2. Most likely to be said by an ecologist
    3. Most likely to be said by an sociologist
  42.  More people are beneficial…people are the ultimate resource.
    1. Most likely to be said by an economist
    2. Most likely to be said by an ecologist
    3. Most likely to be said by an sociologist
    Use the following graph to answer the next 3 questions.


  43. According to the graph, which region had the highest total fertility rate in 1998:
    1. Africa
    2. The Americas
    3. Eastern Mediterranean
    4. Europe
    5. Southeast Asia

  44. According to the graph, which region had the highest total fertility rate in 1950:
    1. Africa
    2. The Americas
    3. Eastern Mediterranean
    4. Europe
    5. Southeast Asia

  45. According to the graph, which region has the greatest fertility reduction:
    1. Africa
    2. The Americas
    3. Eastern Mediterranean
    4. Europe
    5. Southeast Asia

  46. A dependency ratio is a comparison between the numbers of:
    1. working and non-working people
    2. old people and young people
    3. parents and children
  47. The world growth rate is about 1.4 percent. Therefore, the population is currently doubling about every ____ years.
    1. 5
    2. B.
    3. 10
    4. 15
    5. 50
    6. 100

  48. Human population growth most closely resembles which of the following curves.
    1. Malthusian growth curve
    2. logistic growth curve
    3. S-shaped growth curve
    4. J-shaped growth curve

  49. The population theory held by Thomas Malthus was that the human population would:
    1. never reach its environment’s carrying capacity
    2. reach its environment’s carrying capacity and then maintain equilibrium
    3. outstrip its resources, then be vulnerable to starvation and misery
    4. develop a modern utopia

  50. What is not true of viruses?
    1. they are nonliving
    2. they reproduce
    3. they cannot be attacked in cells
    4. their only defense is antibiotics

  51. Allergens are chemicals that:
    1. cause cancer
    2. trigger immune response
    3. alter genes
    4. cause birth defects

  52. Which type of radiation does not penetrate skin?
    1. gamma
    2. beta
    3. alpha
    4. X-rays

  53. The highest natural background radiation on earth has been found where?
    1. Iran
    2. Egypt
    3. India
    4. China

  54. The whole-body radiation dose in rem that is fatal to virtually all exposed victims:
    1. 200
    2. 100
    3. 500
    4. 1000

  55. How the stars and sun generate energy?
    1. fusion
    2. fission
    3. compression
    4. none of the above

  56. A kiloton is the explosive yield of how many tons of explosives?
    1. 1000
    2. 10,000
    3. 10
    4. 1,000,000

  57. When chemicals work against each other they are called:
    1. additive
    2. synergistic
    3. antagonistic

  58. Current US policy is not to use which type of weapon under any circumstance?
    1. Chemical
    2. Biological
    3. Nuclear

  59. Which type of radiation is the most serious external hazard?
    1. alpha radiation
    2. ultraviolet radiation
    3. gamma rays
    4. beta radiation

  60. DNA mutations from ionizing radiation hazards can cause:
    1. cancer
    2. sterility
    3. birth defects
    4. all of the above

  61. Fungal pathogens include all of the following except:
    1. Athletes Foot
    2. Candida
    3. Malaria
    4. Yeast Infections

  62. Which of the following is not true of Beta Radiation?
    1. Given off predominantly by light and medium weight nucclei.
    2. Minor external hazard but a faily serious internal hazard.
    3. Moderately high ionizing ability.
    4. Penetrates skin easily

  63. Global Average of background radiations is:
    1. 0.1 Rem per year
    2. 3 Rem per year
    3. 0.9 Rem per year
    4. 26 Rem per year

  64. Which is a chemical hazard?
    1. Prions
    2. Viruses
    3. Bacteria
    4. Teratogens

  65. Which is a factor in toxicity?
    1. Chemical composition
    2. Solubility and Mobility
    3. The body's ability to metabolize, sequester, or excrete
    4. All the above

  66. The number of Protons in a nucleus is its:
    1. Atomic weight
    2. Half Life
    3. Atomic number
    4. None of the above

  67. The number of Protons plus Neutrons in a nucleus is its:
    1. Atomic number
    2. Atomic weight
    3. Proton mass
    4. None of the above

  68. Malaria and sleeping sickness are both pathogens in which group?
    1. viruses
    2.  protista
    3. bacteria
    4. prions

  69. Which of the following chemical hazards alters genes?
    1. mutations
    2. teratogens
    3. allergens

  70. Protons + Neutrons = _________?
    1. atomic weight
    2. atomic number
    3. oxidation state

  71. Isotopes with _____ Half-Life give off more radiation per unit time.
    1. longer
    2. no
    3. shorter

  72. Natural ______ is how the stars (and the sun) generate energy.
    1. fission
    2. fusion
    3. decay

  73. The _______ is an amount of isotope that gives off a given amount of radiation per unit time
    1. Rem
    2. Rad
    3. Roentgen
    4. curie
    5. Half-life

  74. Which of the following best describes the characteristics of a virus?
    1. A virus is non-living and non-reproducing
    2. A virus is living but non-reproducing
    3. A virus is non living but reproducing
    4. A virus is living and reproducing

  75. Teratogens
    1. cause damage to the nervous system
    2. cause birth defects
    3. trigger immune responses
    4. has no effect

  76. Why taking an antibiotic for a cold is a bad idea:
    1. Antibiotics are useless against viral infections
    2. Excessive use of antibiotics helps create resistant pathogens
    3. Unused antibiotics are dumped into the environment
    4. All the above

  77. The splitting of massive nuclei is refered to as
    1. fusion
    2. fission
    3. radiation
    4. beta decay

  78. Elements with a short half-life of days or less
    1. are an extremely dangerous radiation hazard but decay quickly
    2. are able to migrate far during their lifetime
    3. are a minor high radiation hazard because they decay quickly
    4. are unlikely to cause cancer because they decay quickly

  79. Which one of the following is not a pathogen?
    1. prions
    2. viruses
    3. bacteria
    4. allergen

  80. The effects of radiation in the body include:
    1. Creation of reactive molecules called free radicals
    2. Direct damage to organic molecules
    3. Alteration of DNA
    4. All the above

  81. The dose of a chemical or radiation that kills 50% of those exposed to it is called:
    1. The threshold dose
    2. The half life
    3. Toxicity
    4. LD-50


  82. Our globally rapid population growth is mostly due to
    1. World War I
    2. World War II
    3. Scientific and Industrial Revolutions
    4. Poverty

  83. In the 1990's life expectancy in places like North America, Australia, and Western Europe was approximately
    1. 75
    2. 65
    3. 50
    4. 45

  84. Pandas are not suitable for domestication due to
    1. Reclusive breeding
    2. Slow growth
    3. Tendency to panic
    4. Picky diets

  85. Which animal is not one of the Big Five most important domesticated animals?
    1. Horse
    2. Sheep
    3. Llama
    4. Ox

  86. The largest number of domesticated animals came from which one of the following regions?
    1. Eurasia
    2. Sub-Saharan Africa
    3. The Americas
    4. Australia

  87. Which one of these is NOT a domesticated carnivore?
    1. dog
    2. badger
    3. cat
    4. ferret

  88. What animals make up "The Big Five" key domestic species?
    1. sheep, goat, cattle, pig, and horse
    2. horse, dog, cattle, mongoose, donkey
    3. camel, donkey, water buffalo, llama, and yak
    4. chicken, hen, passenger pigeon, cattle egret, and carolina parakeet

  89. Characteristic(s) of C4 grasses are
    1. Prefer cool climate
    2. Prefer warm climate
    3. Are rich in silica particles
    4. Both b and c

  90. This group believes that we are approaching the earth's carrying capacity:
    1. Pronatalists
    2. Neo-Malthusians
    3. Neo-Marxists
    4. no correct answer

  91. When do most demographers expect earth's population to stabilize?
    1. 100 years
    2. 10 years
    3. 1,000 years
    4. it never will

  92. What is the average fertility rate of a women in the US?
    1. 4
    2. 2
    3. 6 or 7
    4. Less than 1

  93. Which is a factor that increases the desire to have children?
    1. Children are a source of pleasure, pride and comfort
    2. Children are a source of support for elderly parents
    3. Children give families more social status
    4. All of the above

  94. How many large seed grass species are there?
    1. Over 100
    2. About 50
    3. About 20
    4. About 10

  95. How many of the large seed grass species are found in the Eurasian Mediterranean?
    1. Almost all
    2. Over half
    3. About 1/4
    4. Only a few

  96. Which one is a fiber crop?
    1. Flax
    2. Pea
    3. Chickpea
    4. Barley

  97. Which is most likely to make animals unsuitable for domestication?
    1. Fast growth rate
    2. Picky Diet
    3. Low trophic level
    4. Not Territorial

  98. What is NOT an example of pronatalist pressure?
    1. When women have more opportunities to earn a salary, they are less likely to have children.
    2. Children are a source of pleasure, pride, and comfort
    3. Having children increases social status
    4. Children can assist with farm labor and elder care
    5. All of the above

  99. The population growth rate is higher in _____?
    1. more developed countries
    2. less developed countries
    3. the most developed countries
    4. none, population growth varies little between countries

  100. What is the primary cause of most population growth in the last 300 years?
    1. Immigration
    2. Change in climate
    3. Declining mortality rates
    4. Government policies

  101. At what level do most demographers expect the world population will stabilize?
    1. 6-8 billion people
    2. 8-13 billion people
    3. 13-16 billion people
    4. None of the above

  102. ________ has the largest variety of large seed grasses.
    1. The Eurasian Mediterranean
    2. North America
    3. South America
    4. Australia
    5. Sub-Saharan Africa

  103. Animals that have low levels of thyroxine tend to be all of these except:
    1. difficult to domesticate
    2. easy to domesticate
    3. large litter producing animals
    4. retain juvenile forms into adulthood
    5. have spotted or solid color coats

  104. Some animals self-domesticate because _______.
    1. These animals seek human contact
    2. These animals see humans as members of their group
    3. Areas near human settlements are usually free from predators
    4. None of the above

  105. The world human population reached 1 billion around:
    1. AD 1
    2. 1500
    3. 1700
    4. 1800
    5. 1900

  106. Zero population growth rate is slightly over two children per couple because:
    1. we always need slightly more young people
    2. the older generation is dying
    3. some children die and some couples do not have children
    4. that is as low as birth rates can reasonably be expected to get

  107. Women who _________ are least likely to have many children.
    1. cannot afford children
    2. live where many children die young
    3. are subordinate to their husbands
    4. are able to earn an income for themselves
    5. all of the above

  108. Mediterranean climates were critical for the origin of agriculture because they:
    1. Favor plants with large fruit
    2. Favor great varieties of plants
    3. Make plants more dependent on humans
    4. Favor plants with seeds that can survive long dry spells

  109. Demographic Transition refers to:
    1. Change from monarchy to democracy
    2. Change from central planning to capitalism
    3. Change from religious to secular value systems
    4. Change from rapid to slow population growth

  110. The principal reasons North America and Africa did not develop a large variety of domesticated animals:
    1. Eurasians are smarter
    2. North American and African cultural values interfered with domestication
    3. There were serious biological reasons why indigenous animals could not be domesticated
    4. Eurasians were better informed about their environment

  111. A geographic reason that favored animal and plant domestication in Eurasia was:
    1. A north-south orientation that craeted a wide variety of ecological zones
    2. An east-west orientation that created a broad band of similar climate
    3. Its large area provided greater protection from natural disasters
    4. Absence of dry climate areas

  112. The principal reason many people are concerned about the proliferation of specialized and mass-produced crops is:
    1. Seeds are too expensive for poor farmers
    2. They give big business a monopoly on food production
    3. These crops are less nutritious than other crops
    4. We are in danger of losing genetic diversity in our crops

  113. Most of our animal domestication was the result of:
    1. Deliberate selection of desirable traits by humans
    2. Unsystematic selection for desirable traits by humans
    3. Unconscious and unintentional selection by humans
    4. Natural selection with no human intervention at all

  114. Creating desirable strains of roses is mostly a matter of:
    1. Deliberate selection of desirable traits by humans
    2. Unsystematic selection for desirable traits by humans
    3. Unconscious and unintentional selection by humans
    4. Natural selection with no human intervention at all

  115. The proposal to relieve world hunger by getting food from the sea will not work because:
    1. The seas are not big enough
    2. Fish are at a high trophic level and require a lot of biomass to grow
    3. Productivity in the open oceans is very low
    4. Both b. and c.

  116. Legumes are plants whose roots contain bacteria that can fix nitrogen and naturally fertilize plants. Which of the following are legumes?
    1. Beans and alfalfa
    2. Potatoes and beets
    3. Most trees
    4. Grasses and root crops

  117. Contour plowing and strip farming are methods designed to:
    1. Prevent weed spreading
    2. Improve plowing efficiency
    3. Improve harvesting efficiency
    4. Prevent water and soil loss

  118. A combination of high inputs of fertilizer, water, and pesticide together with conventional plant breeding that increased crop production 3-4 times over the past 50 years.
    1. strip farming J
    2. demography S
    3. famine B. arithmetic growth K
    4. terracing T
    5. green revolution



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Created 28 September 2011, Last Update 28 September 2011

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