Environmental Science 102 Exam Bank 3

Steven Dutch, Natural and Applied Sciences, University of Wisconsin - Green Bay
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  1. Species diversity is most concentrated in:
    1. North America, South America, and Africa
    2. North America and Europe
    3. South America, Africa, and Southeast Asia
    4. South Africa, Australia, and Europe
    5. Oceania, East Asia, and Antarctica

  2. Which of the following is not a benefit of biodiversity for humans?
    1. aesthetics
    2. ecological services
    3. food
    4. drugs and medicines
    5. all of these are benefits of biodiversity

  3. Soil formation and nutrient recycling are examples of what type of benefit attributed to biodiversity.
    1. aesthetic benefits
    2. geological cycles
    3. availability of food
    4. ecological benefits
    5. drug and medicine beneft

  4. Habitat fragmentation usually leads to a(n):
    1. decrease in biodiversity
    2. reduction in the number of introduced species.
    3. increase in biodiversity due to the isolated populations.
    4. increase in the number of introduced species.
    5. more stable environment.

  5. In general, an animal whose population is widely scattered geographically is as/than one whose population is geographically restricted.
    1. more likely to become extinct
    2. less likely to become extinct
    3. equally likely to become extinct

  6. Ecotourism is an example of what type of benefit attributed to biodiversity.
    1. aesthetic benefits
    2. geological cycles
    3. availability of food
    4. ecological benefits
    5. drug and medicine beneft

  7. Inbreeding within a species tends to reduce:
    1. genetic diversity
    2. ecological diversity
    3. species diversity

  8. The first symptom of range overgrazing is usually:
    1. the absence of trees
    2. the compaction of soils
    3. desertification
    4. the disappearance of palatable vegetation

  9. Most public rangelands in poor condition are due to:
    1. overcrowding of private livestock.
    2. too many publicly owned animals on public lands.
    3. excessive urban settlement in the West.
    4. the lack of water.

  10. Places most susceptible to desertification are:
    1. jungle clearings.
    2. boreal landscapes.
    3. open woodlands.
    4. desert margins

  11. World deserts are:
    1. decreasing as world climate becomes wetter.
    2. increasing because of the increase in global carbon dioxide.
    3. increasing because of grazing.
    4. decreasing because of massive reforestation.

  12. Rangeland is important because:
    1. it is highly productive in terms of biomass produced.
    2. it is a species-rich ecosystem.
    3. grazing animals can turn plant material with little food value to most mammals into a source of meat and milk.
    4. all of the above.

  13. Publicly-owned rangeland in the U.S.:
    1. comprises 50% of all rangeland area.
    2. totals 12 million square miles of land.
    3. is grazed by 2% of cattle and 10% of sheep.
    4. none of the above.

  14. Livestock production in the U.S. differs from worldwide livestock production in that:
    1. in the U.S., feedlot production is common
    2. feed primarily comes from crops grown for that purpose
    3. feed primarily comes from rangeland and pasture
    4. A and B

  15. Most public rangelands are in poor condition due to:
    1. excessive populations of wild grazing animals
    2. overcrowding of private livestock
    3. too many publicly owned animals on public lands
    4. excessive urban settlement in the West

  16. Approximately how much of U.S. rangeland is privately owned?
    1. 30%
    2. 40%
    3. 50%
    4. 60%

  17. Grazing fees on public lands have changed little because:
    1. political pressures ensure they remain low
    2. they remain at market value, so there is no reason to change them
    3. the public feels that the price is right
    4. livestock owners cannot afford higher fees

  18. The main difference between pasture and rangeland is:
    1. pastures are typically much larger than rangelands
    2. pastures are typically intensively managed and rangelands are not
    3. pastures are typically open and rangelands are typically fenced
    4. pastures are typically made of unpalatable grasses, scrub, etc. while rangelands are typically made of palatable grasses

  19. Approximately how much of the world’s land surface is devoted to rangeland?
    1. One-tenth
    2. One-fifth
    3. One-quarter
    4. One-half

  20. Growing human population is forcing rangeland to be converted to other purposes. How much more rangeland area is being lost compared to rainforest area?
    1. three times
    2. four times
    3. five times
    4. six times

  21. Rangeland is typically located in what type of climate?
    1. Arid (<10” rainfall per year)
    2. Semiarid (between 10” and 16” rainfall per year)
    3. Subhumid (between 15” and 40” rainfall per year)
    4. Humid (Between 40” and 60” rainfall per year)
    5. Both A and B F) Both C and D

  22. Overgrazing leads to:
    1. soil compaction problems
    2. invasion by non-native species
    3. lowered productivity of the land
    4. a greater abundance of less palatable, less nutritious vegetation
    5. all of the above

  23. Which of the following ecosystems is known as the “Footprint of Civilization”?
    1. deserts
    2. rangeland
    3. cropland
    4. forests
    5. wetland

  24. Worldwide, approximately how much of the soil degradation taking place is attributable to overgrazing?
    1. one-tenth
    2. one-quarter
    3. one-third
    4. one-half

  25. In which of the following areas is overgrazing contributing the most to soil degradation?
    1. Africa
    2. Asia
    3. Oceania
    4. South America

  26. One of the good things about grazing animals is that different species prefer different types of vegetation. For instance, goats prefer:
    1. grass and herbaceous plants
    2. low woody shrubs
    3. tree leaves and larger woody plants

  27. In comparing the area in rangeland to the area in cropland, on a worldwide basis:
    1. there is about twice as much land devoted to range than to crops
    2. there is about an equal amount of each
    3. there is about twice as much land devoted to crops than to range
    4. there is about three times as much land devoted to range than to crops

  28. “The process of denuding and degrading once-fertile land initiating a desert-producing cycle that feeds on itself” is the definition of:
    1. deforestation
    2. desertification
    3. overgrazing

  29. Meat from wild grazing animals may become a more important source of human food because:
    1. increased leisure time in the developed countries will encourage sport hunting
    2. wild animals are generally more efficient at converting plant material into meat and are members of natural biological communities
    3. wild animals are easier to breed and control
    4. unlike domestic grazers, wild grazing animals can easily digest cellulose

  30. A broad-spectrum biocide is designed to kill:
    1. a wide range of plants
    2. microbes that are neither plant nor animal
    3. all living organisms
    4. insect species

  31. The population growth curve of a pest organism would probably be _______________ because they are species in ecological succession.
    1. Exponential … pioneer
    2. Arithmetic … pioneer
    3. Stable … pioneer
    4. Stable … climax
    5. Exponential … climax

  32. Globally, the rates of pesticide use are in the wealthiest, more developed countries and the rates of pesticide use in developing countries are .
    1. Lowest … increasing
    2. Lowest … stabilizing
    3. Highest … increasing
    4. Highest … decreasing

  33. Worldwide, most pesticides are used for:
    1. agriculture.
    2. personal protection against disease carrying insects.
    3. ridding tourist areas of pests.
    4. ridding domestic homes of pests.

  34. Which of the following categories of agricultural pesticide use is highest in the U.S.?
    1. biocides
    2. fungicides
    3. insecticides
    4. herbicides
    5. rodenticides

  35. Which of the following are inorganic pesticides?
    1. rotenone and nicotine
    2. arsenic, copper, and mercury
    3. carbon tetrachloride and ethylene dibromide
    4. DDT and mothballs
    5. a complex of chemicals from the Chrysanthemum

  36. Inorganic pesticides are generally:
    1. highly toxic and remain in the soil for a long time.
    2. highly toxic and break down soon in the environment.
    3. moderately toxic and remain in the soil for a long time.
    4. moderately toxic and break down soon in the environment.
    5. toxic to insects, but safe to humans.

  37. Organophosphates operate by attacking an organism’s system.
    1. muscular
    2. blood
    3. immune
    4. nervous
    5. skeletal

  38. Chlorinated hydrocarbons have ______ toxicity for humans and remain in the soil for a ______________ time.
    1. High … long
    2. High … short
    3. Low … short
    4. Low … long

  39. Organophosphates and are similar in that they lack environmental persistence and have low bioaccumulation.
    1. chlorinated hydrocarbons
    2. carbamates
    3. inorganic pesticides
    4. natural organic pesticides

  40. Approximately what percentage of pesticide used never reaches the intended target?
    1. 20
    2. 75
    3. 50
    4. 90

  41. In terms of agriculture, pesticides have lead to _____________ for consumers.
    1. lower monetary costs
    2. more attractive produce
    3. better quality produce
    4. more availability of produce
    5. all of the above

  42. The pesticide treadmill occurs when:
    1. a virus transfers pesticide resistance to a new species.
    2. constantly decreasing doses of pesticides are needed to control pests.
    3. nontarget agricultural species are destroyed by insecticides
    4. constantly increasing doses of pesticides are needed to control pests.

  43. How can an organism be resistant to a chemical that it has never been exposed to?
    1. genes for pesticide resistance can be transferred through vectors such as viruses.
    2.  pesticide resistance does not require chemical exposure and eventually all organisms become resistant.
    3. There is probably some exposure that we are not aware of.
    4. It is not possible for an organism to develop a resistance to a chemical it has never been exposed to.

  44. Behavioral changes as an alternative to current pesticide use would not include:
    1. switching from monoculture fields to mixed polyculture fields.
    2. rotating crops.
    3. diversify the field habitat
    4. all of the above

  45. In order to institute an integrated pest management program, it is necessary to:
    1. have large amount of money.
    2. burn all fields to eliminate biological elements.
    3. have many different kinds of crops.
    4. understand local plants and animals.

  46. With respect to chemical pest controls, integrated pest management uses:
    1. none
    2. the maximum amount as determined by economic thresholds.
    3. broad-spectrum products.
    4. the minimum amount necessary as a last resort.
    5. the maximum amount as determined by organic standards.

  47. Which of the following is not a characteristic of DDT?
    1. it is inexpensive
    2. it is stable
    3. it is soluble in water
    4. it is easy to spread
    5. it kills effectively in one application

  48. An example(s) of a microbial agent is:
    1. Sevin
    2. malathion
    3. bacillus thuringiensis
    4. ladybug
    5. A and B

  49. Without the use of pesticides, in-field yield loss to plant disease, insects, birds, and weeds could total:
    1. 1/10
    2. 1/4
    3. 1/3
    4. 1/2

  50. Another form of biological control is insect birth control, this includes:
    1. using phermones to bait traps
    2. sterlizing males with radiation then releasing them into the wild
    3. using hormones to disrupt the insects’ life cycle
    4. all of the above

  51. The world’s three highest pesticide consumers are:
    1. U.S., Germany, Italy
    2. Russia, U.S., Canada
    3. India, China, Brazil
    4. U.S., India, Egypt
    5. France, Italy, U.S.

  52. The process that happens when pesticide residues evaporate from soil and water in warm areas and then condense in and precipitate in colder regions is called:
    1. bioaccumulation
    2. pesticide rain
    3. the grasshopper effect
    4. pesticide persistence and mobility

  53. Many pesticides are illegal to use in North America. Which of the following is probably not a good explanation for how these illegal pesticides still show up in tissues of people in the U.S.?
    1. the pesticides are being produced in the U.S.
    2. the pesticides can accumulate in air currents and return in rain
    3. the pesticides return on or in foreign-grown produce

  54. Which of the following is a form of chemical deterioration of soil?
    1. salinization
    2. waterlogging
    3. compaction
    4. wind erosion
    5. water erosion

  55. Which of the following causes the greatest amount of soil degradation on a global basis?
    1. chemical deterioration
    2. wind erosion
    3. physical deterioration
    4. water erosion

  56. Worldwide, the greatest area of cropland soil is begin lost to:
    1. erosion
    2. conversion to non-agricultural uses
    3. desertification

  57. Approximately how much of all fresh water is used for irrigation?
    1. 1/10
    2. 9/10
    3. 3/4
    4. 1/2

  58. Waterlogged soils usually result from:
    1. Toxic metal accumulation
    2. Excessive irrigation
    3. Excessive plowing
    4. Natural water erosion processes

  59. Green manure is:
    1. Fresh animal waste that is certified organic
    2. Green plants, especially legumes that are planted and then plowed under
    3. Green plants, especially grasses that are raised for animal fodder
    4. Commercial fertilizer that is certified organic

  60. High responder crops of the green revolution produce tremendous yields:
    1. Even in severe drought conditions
    2. With primitive farming techniques and no chemical use
    3. In response to fertilizers, pesticides, and irrigation
    4. In all conditions where standard crops fail

  61. Legumes are plants whose roots contain bacteria that can fix nitrogen and naturally fertilize plants. Which of the following are legumes?
    1. Beans and alfalfa
    2. Potatoes and beets
    3. Carrots and onions
    4. Grasses and root crops

  62. Which of the following does not occur as a result of using reduced tillage farming?
    1. Water is conserved
    2. Soil is preserved
    3. Incidence of insects and weeds is decreased

  63. Another word for cover crop is:
    1. mulch
    2. strip farming
    3. green manure
    4. shade planting

  64. Which of the following land management techniques is best used on steeply sloping croplands?
    1. Contour plowing
    2. Strip farming
    3. terracing

  65. Which of the following reduced tillage systems creates ridges into which the seed is planted while leaving crop residue in the furrow?
    1. Strip farming
    2. terracing
    3. contour plowing

  66. Which of the following is the best way to ensure soil health?
    1. Maintain clean, open ground between rows
    2. Strip farming and leaving residues on fields after harvest
    3. Clearing fields immediately after harvesting
    4. Establishing ridges running up and down hills

  67. In order to work well, all reduced tillage systems typically require:
    1. An adequate supply of water
    2. A ample amount of fertilizer
    3. The use of new hybrids
    4. The use of pesticides

  68. Which of the following is a form of physical deterioration of soil?
    1. salinization
    2. wind erosion
    3. nutrient depletion
    4. compaction
    5. water erosion

  69. When soils are overused, nutrient depletion often occurs. This is an example of:
    1. Physical deterioration
    2. Chemical deterioration
    3. Wind erosion
    4. Water erosion

  70. Water has a difficult time infiltrating into the soil when this form of degradation occurs:
    1. compaction
    2. nutrient depletion
    3. salinization

  71. One of the drawbacks of leaving crop residues on a field after harvest is increased:
    1. Cost due to high cost of fertilizers
    2. Pest and disease problems
    3. Salinization
    4. Wind erosion

  72. Which of the following is not likely to result from land degradation?
    1. lowered biodiversity
    2. decreased yield
    3. increased infiltration of water into the soil
    4. lowered carrying capacity on rangeland

  73. Overfertilization is a very real problem that often results in:
    1. leaching/runoff of nitrates/phosphates
    2. tremendous yields that, in turn, negatives affects the supply side of global markets
    3. toxic concentrations of nutrients stored in the grain itself Genetic engineering moves selected genes from one organism to another. In agriculture, geneticists have been working on ways in which to genetically alter crops.
  74. Which of the following is or would be an example of a natural cause of extinction?
    1. Freshwater Great Lakes mussels that compete with the Zebra Mussel.
    2. Genetic assimilation as in the case of the hybridization of gray wolves and coyotes.
    3. The passenger pigeon that went extinct at the beginning of the 20th century.
    4. An insect species in the tropical forest that cannot escape predation by a native bird species in the forest.
    5. all of the above

  75. Which of the following statements about trade in endangered species is false?
    1. The principal importers of endangered species are developed countries.
    2. Overharvesting affects animals more than plants.
    3. People who say they are animal lovers are the main contributors to the trade.
    4. The principal exporters of endangered species are developing countries.
    5. None of these statements is false.

  76. Introduced species tend to the balance of ecosystems and biodiversity.
    1. increase, decrease
    2. increase, enhance
    3. maintain, enhance
    4. upset, decrease
    5. upset, increase

  77. Which of the following would be characteristic of an introduced plant species?
    1. Produces a few seeds after many years to reach maturity.
    2. Is a specialist, for example, has a low range of tolerance for soil acidity.
    3. Is an opportunist that is desired by humans for food or ornamental value.
    4. Has many predators and diseases.

  78. Genetic assimilation occurs when a rare species:
    1. disappears through crossbreeding with a related species.
    2. is strengthened through crossbreeding.
    3. mutates to adapt to environmental conditions.
    4. is subject to selection pressures and undergoes a change in genetic material.

  79. The main reason that there are relatively few invertebrates categorized as endangered species is because:
    1. we consider other groups, such as mammals, to be more interesting and desirable.
    2. worldwide there are relatively few invertebrates when compared to plants.
    3. it is extremely difficult to identify and count invertebrates.
    4. since there are 532 invertebrates considered endangered, none of the above is true.
    5. invertebrates are more numerous and the relative percentages are similar.

  80. Canada has fewer listed endangered species than the U.S. because:
    1. much of Canada lies in the far north, where diversity is low.
    2. Canadians are more careful with wildlife.
    3. there are fewer people in Canada compared to the U.S.
    4. Canada does not have a way to identify endangered species.

  81. As of 1999, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service listed how many species as endangered?
    1. 135
    2. 267
    3. 331
    4. 532
    5. 1500

  82. Although invertebrates make up 75% of all known species, they only make up of endangered species.
    1. 9%
    2. 19%
    3. 29%
    4. 39%
    5. 49%

  83. In general, funding for recovery programs is given to species that are:
    1. in the most danger.
    2. the most important.
    3. most well known.
    4. keystone species.

  84. The objective of a species recovery plan is to:
    1. interbreed threatened species with common species.
    2. increase an endangered species population until it is no longer endangered.
    3. invest corporate capital in species maintenance.
    4. study the species for a better understanding of its role in the biological community.
    5. protect the species to aid other organisms and resources in the ecosystem.

  85. Which of the following regions has had the greatest success in increasing food production since approximately 1961?
    1. Sub-Sahara Africa
    2. Russia
    3. Latin America
    4. Asia

  86. Which of the following areas is projected to face the gravest food shortages as we approach the year 2010?
    1. Sub-Sahara Africa
    2. South Asia
    3. East/Southeast Asia
    4. Oceania

  87. Although they may not be the most nutritious crops, which of the following crops are cultivated due to their resistance to drought?
    1. barley and rye
    2. cassava and sweet potato
    3. sorghum and millet
    4. wheat and rye

  88. What is the basis of the statement “We could feed more people if we eat grain rather than feeding it to livestock”?
    1. first law of thermodynamics
    2. second law of thermodynamics
    3. biocentrism
    4. anthrocentrism

  89. The most efficient protein source available to humans, in terms of converting feed grain to protein, is:
    1. Fish
    2. Poultry
    3. Pork
    4. Beef

  90. Which of the following regions consumes an inequitable percentage of meat and milk?
    1. India
    2. Sudan
    3. Indonesia
    4. Japan

  91. In developed countries, improved agricultural yields can be attributed to all of the following except:
    1. more intense cropping techniques (planting two crops each year)
    2. pesticide use
    3. increased irrigation
    4. better crop varieties and hybrids
    5. increased use of fertilizers

  92. In developing countries, greater agricultural yields can be attributed to all of the following except:
    1. more intense cropping techniques (planting two crops each year)
    2. reduced soil erosion techniques
    3. new and better crop varieties and hybrids

  93. The world as a whole is reaching the limit of land that could be converted into agriculturally productive land. Potentially, which of the following areas has the highest percentage of land that could put into agricultural production.
    1. East Asia
    2. Latin America
    3. Africa

  94. There are many reasons behind the starvation that is occurring in Sub-Sahara Africa. From the perspective of Sub-Sahara Africa, the least of these problems is:
    1. drought/climate
    2. overpopulation
    3. war
    4. poverty
    5. government mismanagement

  95. Per capita cropland is becoming an important issue because we need to feed a growing population. Which of the following regions faces the greatest challenge in terms of having the lowest cropland per capita?
    1. Africa
    2. Asia
    3. Latin America
    4. Oceania

  96. Many organisms were never fossilized because:
    1. They had no hard parts
    2. They were rare and restricted
    3. Their enviroment was unsuitable for fossilization
    4. Any of the above

  97. Pandas are not suitable for domestication due to
    1. Reclusive breeding
    2. Slow growth
    3. Tendency to panic
    4. Picky diets

  98. Which endangered species died in the Cincinnati Zoo on September 14, 1914?
    1. Heath Hen
    2. Dodo
    3. Passenger Pigeon
    4. Carolina Parakeet

  99. Which animal is not one of the Big Five most important domesticated animals?
    1. Horse
    2. Sheep
    3. Llama
    4. Ox

  100. The largest number of domesticated animals came from which one of the following regions?
    1. Eurasia
    2. Sub-Saharan Africa
    3. The Americas
    4. Australia

  101. Which one of these is NOT a domesticated carnivore?
    1. dog
    2. badger
    3. cat
    4. ferret

  102. What animals make up "The Big Five" key domestic species?
    1. sheep, goat, cattle, pig, and horse
    2. horse, dog, cattle, mongoose, donkey
    3. camel, donkey, water buffalo, llama, and yak
    4. chicken, hen, passenger pigeon, cattle egret, and carolina parakeet

  103. Which is true of natural reserves?
    1. small reserves are better because they provide more varied habitat
    2. a few large reserves are better than a number of small reserves
    3. reserves should be far apart so species are spread out more
    4. long and linear reserves are better than circular ones

  104. The theory of island biogeography has also been called:
    1. First Law of Genetic Biodiversity
    2. First Law of Conservation Biology
    3. First Law of Natural Selection
    4. First Law of the 6th Extinction

  105. This animal was the original "penguin"?
    1. Yak
    2. Steller's Sea Cow
    3. Greak Auk
    4. no correct answer

  106. Characteristic(s) of C4 grasses are
    1. Prefer cool climate
    2. Prefer warm climate
    3. Are rich in silica particles
    4. Both b and c

  107. How many large seed grass species are there?
    1. Over 100
    2. About 50
    3. About 20
    4. About 10

  108. How many of the large seed grass species are found in the Eurasian Mediterranean?
    1. Almost all
    2. Over half
    3. About 1/4
    4. Only a few

  109. Which one is a fiber crop?
    1. Flax
    2. Pea
    3. Chickpea
    4. Barley

  110. Which is most likely to make animals unsuitable for domestication?
    1. Fast growth rate
    2. Picky Diet
    3. Low trophic level
    4. Not Territorial

  111. This can be called the first high-tech extinction because railroads and the telegraph played a key role in over-exploitation of the species:
    1. Passenger Pigeon
    2. Heath Hen
    3. Dodo
    4. Great Auk

  112. ________ has the largest variety of large seed grasses.
    1. The Eurasian Mediterranean
    2. North America
    3. South America
    4. Australia
    5. Sub-Saharan Africa

  113. Animals that have low levels of thyroxine tend to be all of these except:
    1. difficult to domesticate
    2. easy to domesticate
    3. large litter producing animals
    4. retain juvenile forms into adulthood
    5. have spotted or solid color coats

  114. Some animals self-domesticate because _______.
    1. These animals seek human contact
    2. These animals see humans as members of their group
    3. Areas near human settlements are usually free from predators
    4. None of the above

  115. Megafauna _______ when humans arrived
    1. were domesticated
    2. coexisted with humans
    3. often disappeared
    4. had a new lunch option
    5. none of the above

  116. Extinctions are caused mainly by ______.
    1. Epidemics
    2. Evolution of new competitors
    3. Habitat disruption or modification
    4. None of these

  117. Habitat fragmentation usually leads to a(n):
    1. decrease in biodiversity
    2. reduction in the number of introduced species.
    3. increase in biodiversity due to the isolated populations.
    4. more stable environment.

  118. Mediterranean climates were critical for the origin of agriculture because they:
    1. Favor plants with large fruit
    2. Favor great varieties of plants
    3. Make plants more dependent on humans
    4. Favor plants with seeds that can survive long dry spells

  119. The principal reasons North America and Africa did not develop a large variety of domesticated animals:
    1. Eurasians are smarter
    2. North American and African cultural values interfered with domestication
    3. There were serious biological reasons why indigenous animals could not be domesticated
    4. Eurasians were better informed about their environment

  120. A geographic reason that favored animal and plant domestication in Eurasia was:
    1. A north-south orientation that craeted a wide variety of ecological zones
    2. An east-west orientation that created a broad band of similar climate
    3. Its large area provided greater protection from natural disasters
    4. Absence of dry climate areas

  121. The Law of Island Biodiversity states that:
    1. Islands have less biodiversity than similar size mainland areas
    2. Islands have more biodiversity than similar size mainland areas
    3. Islands all have about the same biodiversity
    4. Island organisms are better adapted than mainland organisms

  122. One of the reasons for the Law of Island Biodiversity is:
    1. Islands have lower rates of species immigration
    2. Islands have higher rates of species immigration
    3. Islands have more rapid rates of evolution
    4. Islands have less rapid rates of evolution

  123. Another of the reasons for the Law of Island Biodiversity is:
    1. Islands have lower rates of extinction because they are isolated
    2. Islands have higher rates of extinction because species are more geographically restricted
    3. Islands have lower rates of extinction because there is less competition
    4. Islands have higher rates of extinction because species are more densely packed

  124. The principal reason many people are concerned about the proliferation of specialized and mass-produced crops is:
    1. Seeds are too expensive for poor farmers
    2. They give big business a monopoly on food production
    3. These crops are less nutritious than other crops
    4. We are in danger of losing genetic diversity in our crops

  125. Most of our animal domestication was the result of:
    1. Deliberate selection of desirable traits by humans
    2. Unsystematic selection for desirable traits by humans
    3. Unconscious and unintentional selection by humans
    4. Natural selection with no human intervention at all

  126. Creating desirable strains of roses is mostly a matter of:
    1. Deliberate selection of desirable traits by humans
    2. Unsystematic selection for desirable traits by humans
    3. Unconscious and unintentional selection by humans
    4. Natural selection with no human intervention at all

  127. Primary productivity is the rate of converting:
    1. Sunlight into chemical energy
    2. Biomass into food
    3. Biomass into the next higher trophic level
    4. Nutrients into energy

  128. Primary productivity is highest in:
    1. Tropical Forests
    2. Temperate forests
    3. Grasslands
    4. Tundra

  129. Primary productivity is highest in:
    1. Open Oceans
    2. Coastal waters
    3. Lakes
    4. Reefs and Estuaries

  130. Going from equator to pole, which decreases?
    1. Species diversity
    2. Abundance within species

  131. Going from equator to pole, which increases?
    1. Species diversity
    2. Abundance within species

  132. If two species are in the same place and need the same resource, which is the least likely outcome?
    1. One will migrate away
    2. One will become extinct in that area
    3. They will share the resource evenly
    4. They will partition the resource so that each uses slightly different parts of it

  133. When generalist species and specialist species meet, who usually wins?
    1. Generalists
    2. Specialists

  134. Why?
    1. Specialists are more attuned to their setting and thus better adapted
    2. Specialists have highly developed traits that generalists lack
    3. Specialists cannot cope with changed conditions as well as generalists
    4. Specialists lack the genetic diversity of generalists

  135. The role a species plays in a biological community is its:
    1. Habitat
    2. Adaptation
    3. Species Diversity
    4. Ecological Niche

  136. When individual organisms adapt, they change so they can cope with a changed environment and:
    1. The changes are passed on to their offspring
    2. The changes are not passed on to their offspring
    3. The change is due to a mutation
    4. The change can be as great as necessary to survive

  137. When populations adapt, they change so they can cope with a changed environment and:
    1. The changes are passed on to their offspring
    2. The changes result from selection of pre-existing genetic diversity
    3. The change can eventually lead to speciation
    4. All of these

  138. Which is true of mutations?
    1. They are changes in an organism's DNA code
    2. The chance of a random beneficial change is small
    3. Radical changes are usually harmful
    4. All of these

  139. In the Five Kingdom System now used in many biology texts, which is not a kingdom?
    1. Animals
    2. Plants
    3. Vertebrates
    4. Protista (one-celled organisms)
    5. Fungi

  140. In classifying a cat, which of the following lists its classification groups in correct order from highest to lowest?
    1. Carnivora, Chordata, Mammalia
    2. Mammalia, Carnivora, Chordata
    3. Carnivora, Mammalia, Chordata
    4. Chordata, Mammalia, Carnivora

  141. How can rain forests be so lush if the soil is so poor?
    1. They get nutrients from rain water
    2. The organisms have evolved to do without soil nutrients
    3. Human slash-and-burn agriculture returns nutrients to the soil
    4. The ecosystem is very effective at recycling nutrients

  142. Which factors enter into soil classification?
    1. age of the soil
    2. parent material
    3. climate and drainage
    4. all the above

  143. Contour plowing and strip farming are methods designed to:
    1. Prevent weed spreading
    2. Improve plowing efficiency
    3. Improve harvesting efficiency
    4. Prevent water and soil loss

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Created 2 September 2011, Last Update 15 November 2011

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