Exam Bank 4

Steven Dutch, Natural and Applied Sciences, University of Wisconsin - Green Bay
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  1. to prevent long-term pollution of ground water, it is most important to protect:
    1. The recharge zone
    2. The area around the well
    3. Streams and lakes
    4. Springs and seeps

  2. Most of the earth's liquid fresh water is:
    1. Lakes and rivers
    2. ground water
    3. Ocean water
    4. Glacial ice

  3. The triatomic form of oxygen (O3) is known as:
    1. argon
    2. ozone
    3. thermopause
    4. molecular oxygen
    5. chlorofluorocarbon

  4. There is disagreement about every aspect of global warming except one. Which is the one point everyone agrees?
    1. Accuracy of the computer models
    2. Whether the change is man-made or natural
    3. Carbon dioxide has increased in the last few centuries
    4. The role of clouds in moderating global warming
    5. Whether the change will be harmful or beneficial

  5. Which one of the following is the most abundant gas in the atmosphere?
    1. oxygen
    2. nitrogen
    3. argon
    4. hydrogen
    5. carbon dioxide

  6. When solar radiation passes through the Earth's atmosphere, the ozone in the atmosphere effectively absorbs this portion of the solar radiation.
    1. Ultraviolet radiation
    2. Visible radiation
    3. Infrared radiation
    4. Radio waves

  7. This greenhouse gas is produced through the decay of organic matter.
    1. water vapor
    2. sulfur dioxide
    3. methane
    4. chloroflourocarbons
    5. nitrous oxides

  8. This gas contributes to depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer.
    1. water vapor
    2. carbon dioxide
    3. methane
    4. chloroflourocarbons
    5. nitrous oxides

  9. This is the greenhouse gas that humans have the least control over because it is so naturally abundant.
    1. water vapor
    2. carbon dioxide
    3. methane
    4. chloroflourocarbons
    5. nitrous oxides

  10. This greenhouse has is primarily the result of the burning of fossil fuels.
    1. carbon dioxide
    2. nitrous oxides
    3. methane
    4. cholorflourocarbons

  11. Many people are surprised by this, but the strongest greenhouse gas is:
    1. carbon dioxide
    2. water vapor
    3. chlorofluorocarbons
    4. methane
    5. nitrous oxides

  12. Regarding the Ogallala (High Plains) Aquifer:
    1. its water is replaced on an annual basis through precipitation.
    2. its water originally came from ocean water seepage.
    3. it is a nonrenewable resource.
    4. The water table is falling

  13. When we say dry regions "mine" water, we mean:
    1. They must drill wells to reach a water source.
    2. They must locate underground water because there is no surface water available.
    3. They extract water faster than it is replenished.
    4. The water is rich in dissolved minerals.

  14. The biggest single cause of infant mortality worldwide is
    1. diarrhea from contaminated water
    2. war
    3. insect-borne diseases
    4. skin infections

  15. Women in developing countries spend up to ________ getting water
    1. one day a year
    2. 12 hours a day
    3. one week a year
    4. 1/3 of their time

  16. Most ground water is derived from
    1. permeable rocks called aquifers
    2. hard rocks like granite
    3. underground streams and rivers
    4. water-deposited rocks like shale

  17. Underground Streams are
    1. rare, short, and small
    2. the source of 10% of the earth's water
    3. the source of half the earth's water
    4. the source of most of the earth's water

  18. Artesian aquifers are:
    1. pure
    2. uncontaminated
    3. free of minerals
    4. pressurized
    5. all of the above

  19. In the Green Bay area, the water table ________ after a pipeline from Lake Michigan was built
    1. rose
    2. dropped
    3. was completely replenished
    4. was unaffected

  20. In recent years the water table in the Green Bay area has fallen due to
    1. dry summers and lack of recharge
    2. diversion of water into other aquifer layers
    3. dams on the Wolf River
    4. increased water use by suburbs

  21. The ground water east of the Niagara Escarpment is separated from deeper aquifers by impervious rocks. This is an example of a ____________ aquifer
    1. artesian
    2. perched
    3. elevated
    4. impermeable
    5. permeable

  22. Open-channel aquifers (caverns, open fractures, etc.) are very fragile because
    1. they contain many rare cave organisms
    2. the rock formations are weakened by the fractures
    3. acid rain can dissolve the rocks quickly
    4. contaminants can move quickly over long distances

  23. Some people seriously argue global warming may not be all bad. In support, they point to:
    1. reduced energy demands
    2. longer growing seasons
    3. more biomass
    4. more habitable land
    5. all of the above

  24. Someone argues that man-made chemicals can't be the cause of depletion of the ozone layer because hydrogen chloride from volcanoes is far more abundant. You respond with:
    1. a blank stare
    2. admitting he's right
    3. he's wrong; man-made chemicals are far more abundant
    4. volcanoes do not give off hydrogen chloride

  25. Based on the computer models that have been developed, which region of the earth do scientists believe will show the most pronounced warming?
    1. poles
    2. midlatitudes
    3. subtropics
    4. tropics

  26. The best estimate of the magnitude of global warming, assuming a doubling of atmospheric carbon dioxide, is:
    1. 1°C
    2. 2°C
    3. 3°C
    4. 4°C
    5. 6°C

  27. Increased carbon dioxide may actually benefit agriculture because of the increased productivity of C3 plants.Which of the following is not an example of a C3 plant?
    1. corn
    2. rice
    3. wheat
    4. barley

  28. Increased concentrations of carbon dioxide will help increase photosynthesis levels in plants assuming:
    1. the correct hybrid/variety is planted
    2. the crop is well fertilized
    3. insect pests are kept in check
    4. the crop has enough water

  29. What greenhouse gas, trapped under permafrost, will be released if the permafrost ever thaws?
    1. carbon dioxide
    2. methane
    3. nitrous oxides
    4. chlorofluorocarbons
    5. ozone

  30. If global warming occurs, the Great Plains might find:
    1. increased land values as the Corn Belt shifts westward
    2. increased land values due to the agricultural infrastructure (e.g., irrigation systems) already in place for the different crops that would be grown there
    3. decreased land values due to less productive crops
    4. decreased land values when wheat takes over land currently in native grasses

  31. Global warming means just that, global warming.Climate changes will vary depending on the specific region.Assuming global warming does occur, it is likely that in the Midwest and Great Plains of the U.S., temperature will _________ , while evaporation will ___________ .
    1. increase, increase
    2. increase, decrease
    3. decrease, increase
    4. decrease, decrease

  32. Again, assuming global warming does occur, wintertime precipitation is expected to _________ and summertime precipitation is expected to ____________ in the Great Plains and Midwest of the U.S.
    1. increase .... increase
    2. increase .... decrease
    3. decrease .... increase
    4. decrease .... decrease

  33. If global warming occurs, global precipitation is expected to _____________ .
    1. increase
    2. decrease
    3. remain the same

  34. When solar radiation passes through the Earthâ's atmosphere, the ozone in the atmosphere effectively absorbs this portion of the solar radiation.
    1. Ultraviolet radiation
    2. Visible radiation
    3. Infrared radiation

  35. This greenhouse gas is produced through the anaerobic breakdown of organic matter.
    1. water vapor
    2. carbon dioxide
    3. methane
    4. chloroflourocarbons
    5. nitrous oxides

  36. This greenhouse gas contributes to both global warming and depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer.
    1. water vapor
    2. carbon dioxide
    3. methane
    4. chloroflourocarbons
    5. nitrous oxides

  37. The human activities that contribute most to global warming are:
    1. deforestation and industrial process
    2. industrial processes and agriculture
    3. burning fossil fuels and deforestation
    4. agriculture and burning fossil fuels

  38. This is the only greenhouse gas that humans really have no control over because it is naturally occurring.
    1. water vapor
    2. carbon dioxide
    3. methane
    4. chloroflourocarbons
    5. nitrous oxides

  39. The gas that has the greatest relative contribution to global warming is carbon dioxide.It is the greatest relative contributor because:
    1. it is the strongest, most efficient greenhouse gas
    2. it is more abundant than any other greenhouse gas
    3. it has been around longer than all the other greenhouse gases

  40. The use of this greenhouse gas is currently being phased out, particularly in the U.S.
    1. water vapor
    2. carbon dioxide
    3. methane
    4. chloroflourocarbons
    5. nitrous oxides

  41. The gases that make up Earth's atmosphere:
    1. reflect away most of the solar energy that reaches the Earth's atmosphere
      1. are, to a great extent, transparent to much of the solar energy that reaches the Earth's atmosphere
      2. absorb and hold most of the solar energy that reaches the Earth's atmosphere

  42. These two countries, currently ranked 9 and 10 on the list of largest per capita emitters of carbon dioxide, could add a tremendous amount of additional carbon dioxide to the atmosphere if their plans to further industrialize are fulfilled.
    1. Ukraine and China
    2. India and Ukraine
    3. Japan and China
    4. China and India

  43. Solar radiation is made up of gamma radiation, x-ray radiation, ultraviolet radiation, visible radiation, infrared radiation, microwaves, and radiowaves. However, the vast majority of the Sun's radiation that reaches the Earth's surface is in the form of:
    1. ultraviolet and visible radiation
    2. visible and infrared radiation
    3. infrared and microwave radiation
    4. ultraviolet and infrared

  44. This greenhouse gas is exclusively man-made.It did not exist in pre-industrial times.
    1. carbon dioxide
    2. nitrous oxides
    3. methane
    4. chlorofluorocarbons

  45. This greenhouse has is primarily the result of the burning of fossil fuels.
    1. carbon dioxide
    2. nitrous oxides
    3. methane
    4. cholorflourocarbons

  46. When any form of radiation is absorbed by an object, the following will occur:
    1. humans will be able to see the object
    2. the object's temperature will increase
    3. the object will become sunburned
    4. nothing will happen

  47. Based on atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations observed at the Mauna Loa Observatory in Hawaii, the following can be stated with certainty:
    1. the annual trend in carbon dioxide concentrations has been increasing
    2. over the course of the year, there is a carbon dioxide minimum in the northern hemisphere summer
    3. over the course of the year, there is a carbon dioxide maximum in the northern hemisphere winter
    4. all of the above can be stated with certainty

  48. Over the last few years the relative contribution of chlorofluorocarbons to global warming is thought to have:
    1. increased
    2. decreased
    3. remained the same

  49. Many people don't believe this, but the strongest greenhouse gas is:
    1. carbon dioxide
    2. water vapor
    3. chlorofluorocarbons
    4. methane
    5. nitrous oxides

  50. This gas is produced when commercial fertilizers breakdown in the soil
    1. water vapor
    2. methane
    3. chlorofluorocarbons
    4. carbon dioxide
    5. nitrous oxides

  51. This gas is 25 times more efficient than carbon dioxide, that is, it traps 25 times more heat energy per molecule than carbon dioxide
    1. water vapor
    2. methane
    3. chlorofluorocarbons
    4. carbon dioxide
    5. nitrous oxides

  52. The concentration of this gas was about 280 ppm at the start of the industrial revolution but is now at about 380 ppm.
    1. water vapor
    2. methane
    3. chlorofluorocarbons
    4. carbon dioxide
    5. nitrous oxides

  53. The major sources of this gas include refrigerants, industrial solvents, and plastic foams.
    1. water vapor
    2. methane
    3. chlorofluorocarbons
    4. carbon dioxide
    5. nitrous oxides

  54. This gas can make up nearly 0% or as much as 2%-3% of the atmosphere.
    1. water vapor
    2. methane
    3. chlorofluorocarbons
    4. carbon dioxide
    5. nitrous oxides

  55. This gas is concentrated near the Earth's surface.
    1. water vapor
    2. methane
    3. chlorofluorocarbons
    4. carbon dioxide
    5. nitrous oxides

  56. A country's renewable water supplies are generally made up of:
    1. surface runoff and infiltration into accessible aquifers.
    2. seasonal flooding and infiltration into accessible aquifers.
    3. rivers running through the country.
    4. water used from an aquifer.

  57. All of the countries listed below are considered to be "water-poorâ" countries.Which country does not fit the mold of the typical water-poor country?
    1. Jordan
    2. Israel
    3. Kuwait
    4. Singapore
    5. Egypt

  58. The reason the country identified in the question above does not fit the mold of a typical "water-poor" country is:
    1. it has higher evaporation rates than the other countries listed
    2. it has a drier climate than the other countries listed
    3. it has a high population density than the other countries listed
    4. it has lower precipitation rates than the other countries listed

  59. Many "water-poor"countries are located:
    1. between approximately 20°-30° latitude
    2. near the equator
    3. between approximately 40°-50° latitude
    4. near the poles

  60. The biggest reason Canada is considered a "water-rich"country is:
    1. it has especially high precipitation rates
    2. it has a huge land area
    3. it has an especially moist climate
    4. it has a high population density

  61. Human water withdrawals have been increasing at about _____rate as worldwide population growth.
    1. the same
    2. half the
    3. twice the
    4. one-third the
    5. three times the

  62. Comparing water use of developed to developing countries:
    1. more water is used for agriculture in developed countries
    2. more water is used for domestic purposes in developing countries
    3. more water is used for industry in developed countries

  63. Regarding the Ogallala Aquifer:
    1. its water is replaced on an annual basis through precipitation.
    2. its water originally came from ocean water seepage.
    3. it is a nonrenewable resource.
    4. none of the above.

  64. The Ogallala Aquifer supplies water to and once held more water than the surface water  .
    1. California's Central Valley, in the world
    2. the Rocky Mountain states, in the U.S.
    3. the central Plains states, in the world
    4. Arizona and Las Vegas, in the U.S.

  65. A method of increasing water supplies that has proven to be successful, but expensive, is:
    1. desalinization by reverse osmosis.
    2. cloud seeding.
    3. towing icebergs by ship from polar regions.
    4. none of these methods are successful.

  66. Some countries use just about all their water for irrigation (for example, India at 93%).Other countries use very little of its water for irrigation (for example, Kuwait at 4%).  Worldwide, approximately percent of total water withdrawn is used for agriculture?
    1. 30%
    2. 50%
    3. 70%
    4. 90%

  67. Many developing countries “mine” water.  This is because:
    1. these countries must drill wells to reach a water source.
    2. these countries must locate underground water because there is no surface water available.
    3. these countries extract water faster than it is replenished.
    4. none of the above.

  68. Germany is a leader in using water for industrial purposes.  After being used for industrial purposes most water is:
    1. put in a storage reservoir to allow sedimentation to take place
    2. detoxified of chemical pollutants before being released into streams and rivers
    3. just released into streams and rivers where it could cause thermal pollution
    4. distilled then released into streams and rivers

  69. Agricultural water use in developing countries is considered inefficient because:
    1. 60-70% of the water never reaches the crop.
    2. these countries typically use flood irrigation, so much of it evaporates before the crop uses it.
    3. these countries typically use flood irrigation, so much of it infiltrates below the crop root zone.
    4. irrigation water is transported through canals, where much of it is lost to evaporation and seepage.
    5. all of the above.

  70. In some developing countries:
    1. the quantity of water is not a problem, it is just unevenly distributed.
    2. the quantity of water is not a problem, but the quality of the water makes it unfit for consumption.
    3. quantity is a problem
    4. both A and B

  71. Water use in developing countries is dominated by:
    1. agricultural use.
    2. domestic use.
    3. industrial activities.
    4. use as drinking water.

  72. Many "water-rich" countries are located near the equator, thus their reason for being "water-rich " is due to:
    1. high precipitation rates
    2. typically large land areas
    3. low population densities

  73. Lawsuits are a potential problem if which of the following methods of increasing freshwater supplies is adopted?
    1. cloud seeding
    2. iceberg towing
    3. desalinization

  74. The greatest problem with the desalinization process used during reverse osmosis is that:
    1. salts pass too easily through the membrane.
    2. the thin membrane easily rips.
    3. only salt water with mineral concentrations below 10 ppm can effectively be desalinized.
    4. what to do with the highly concentrated saltwater that is left over.

  75. Although population growth rates in developing countries is increasing, water demand is:
    1. stabilizing
    2. also increasing
    3. decreasing

  76. Withdrawal is the total amount of water:
    1. lost in transmission due to evaporation and leakage
    2. taken from rivers, lakes, and aquifers
    3. used in manufacturing or agriculture
    4. altered or polluted in human activities

  77. In some regions groundwater withdrawals can contribute to sinkholes, in which:
    1. ground level over a large area sinks
    2. buildings slowly settle at odd, perilous angles
    3. empty underground caverns, typically made of limestone, suddenly collapse
    4. holes for wells need to be deeper because of a change in water table

  78. Desalinization of water through reverse osmosis is the principal source of water for which countries?
    1. tropical countries with long coastlines
    2. countries located in the interiors of continents
    3. oil-rich Middle Eastern countries
    4. countries in colder, more poleward locations

  79. Withdrawal of groundwater often causes subsidence, a situation where:
    1. aquifer volume decreases sharply
    2. withdrawals exceed recharge rates
    3. water quality and water tables fall
    4. porous rocks settle and ground level falls
    5. wells dry up

  80. Source of the water that forms volcanic mudflows:
    1. melting of the volcano's snow or ice cap
    2. condensation of water vapor from the eruption cloud
    3. either a or b
    4. neither a nor b

  81. The least dangerous hazard to human life from volcanoes:
    1. lava flows
    2. nuees ardentes
    3. mudflows

  82. A fiery cloud of hot gases and pyroclastic debris which flows down the side of a volcano is called:
    1. a cinder avalanche
    2. a nuee ardente or pyroclastic flow
    3. clastic flow
    4. theromoclastic avalanche
    5. none of these

  83. Which is most dangerous to humans:
    1. nuee ardente or pyroclastic flow
    2. pahoehoe
    3. lava flows
    4. pillow lava
    5. volcanic bombs

  84. Which is the least likely to cause casualties during a volcanic eruption?
    1. mudflows
    2. pyroclastic flows
    3. fast-moving lava flows that arrive without warning
    4. building collapse from ash falls

  85. Volcanic ash is:
    1. rock dust ejected by the volcano.
    2. remains of materials burned by hot lava.
    3. minerals that condense from volcanic gases.
    4. loose soil picked up by the wind after eruptions.

  86. Before the advent of rapid communication and transportation for relief efforts, probably the greatest danger from volcanoes was:
    1. lava flows that struck without warning.
    2. weather disturbances caused by distant eruptions
    3. inability to evacuate people in danger
    4. starvation due to environmental disruption

  87. The worst volcanic gas disaster known occurred in the African nation of Cameroon in 1986 It was:
    1. an outburst of carbon dioxide that suffocated many people.
    2. a sudden, explosive release of hot gases.
    3. emission of highly toxic hydrogen sulfide.
    4. emission of toxic gases that poisoned crops.

  88. The best-documented global cooling by a volcanic eruption occurred after the eruption of:
    1. Vesuvius in 79 A. D.
    2. Krakatoa in 1883.
    3. the Indonesian volcano Tambora in 1815.
    4. Mount Katmai in 1912.

  89. Mount Pelee caused great loss of life during its 1902 eruption because of a:
    1. pyroclastic flow.
    2. lava flow.
    3. mudflow
    4. heavy ash fall that collapsed buildings.

  90. Nevado Ruiz erupted in 1985 and killed 20,000 people because of:
    1. pyroclastic flow.
    2. lava flow.
    3. mudflow
    4. heavy ash fall that collapsed buildings.

  91. Recently, a number of large earthquakes have been reported as exceeding magnitude 9. The reason is:
    1. earthquakes are getting stronger
    2. our records of earlier earthquakes were incomplete
    3. the magnitude scale for the strongest earthquakes has been redefined

  92. If an earthquake has a certain intensity 10 km from the fault rupture, the intensity 100 km away will probably be:
    1. greater
    2. less
    3. the same
    4. impossible to predict

  93. The least likely to cause casualties in earthquakes:
    1. building collapse
    2. shaking and vibration
    3. fire
    4. landslides

  94. Most tsunamis occur
    1. in the Pacific
    2. during hurricanes
    3. in the Indian Ocean
    4. in Hawaii

  95. Why no earthquake greater than magnitude 10 has ever been observed:
    1. It is mathematically impossible
    2. The Richter Scale only goes to 8.
    3. We haven't been observing long enough.
    4. The crust can't store that much strain energy

  96. An earthquake with negative magnitude
    1. is very tiny
    2. is very large
    3. is impossible

  97. It takes ___ earthquakes of magnitude 4 to release as much energy as one of magnitude 5.
    1. 5 x 4 or 20
    2. 5/4 or 1.25
    3. 5+4 or 9
    4. 30

  98. Why earthquakes cause such large death tolls in Third World countries
    1. weak but heavy construction materials
    2. more tsunamis
    3. poor hospitals
    4. stronger earthquakes

  99. Why it is inaccurate to say the Richter Scale "runs from one to ten"?
    1. It actually starts at zero.
    2. It actually ends at nine
    3. It starts at zero but has no upper limit.
    4. It ends at ten but has no lower limit
    5. It has no upper or lower limit.

  100. The most dangerous type of construction for earthquake-prone regions:
    1. adobe
    2. reinforced masonry
    3. concrete block
    4. steel frame
    5. wood frame

  101. Another name for a seismic sea wave is:
    1. tidal wave
    2. tsunami
    3. elastic sea wave
    4. bonsai
    5. none of these

  102. Which of the following usually causes the greatest amount of damage and loss of life?
    1. fire
    2. building collapse
    3. tsunami
    4. landslides
    5. ground shaking

  103. A tsunami is a:
    1. measure of the energy released by an earthquake
    2. seismic sea wave
    3. precursor to an earthquake
    4. locked portion of a fault
    5. seismic gap

  104. An epicenter is:
    1. the location where rupture begins
    2. the point on the Earth's surface vertically above the focus
    3. the same as the hypocenter
    4. the location where energy is released

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Created 2 September 2011, Last Update 15 November 2011

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