Earth Science 102: Astronomy 

Steven Dutch, Natural and Applied Sciences, University of Wisconsin - Green Bay
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  1. The outermost layer of the sun is called the:
    1. ionosphere
    2. chromosphere
    3. corona
    4. megasphere
    5. photosphere
  2. The most explosive events to occur on the sun are:
    1. granules
    2. filaments
    3. solar flares
    4. solar winds
    5. sun spots
  3. Which main-sequence stars are the least massive?
    1. red
    2. white
    3. orange
    4. blue
    5. yellow
  4. Possibly the most cataclysmic act to occur in nature is;
    1. electron degeneration
    2. a nova
    3. a supernova
    4. the collision of two galaxies
  5. The sun produces energy by converting:
    1. oxygen to carbon dioxide
    2. oxygen to nitrogen
    3. carbon monoxide to oxygen
    4. hydrogen to helium
    5. helium to hydrogen
  6. The nearest star
    1. Alpha Centauri
    2. Sirius
    3. Procyon
    4. the Sun
  7. Although the Sun appears sharp, we can actually see about ____
  8. kilometers into it.
    1. 10
    2. 200
    3. 10,000
    4. 100,000
  9. The visible surface of the Sun
    1. corona
    2. chromosphere
    3. photosphere
    4. nuclear core
  10. The cooler layer of the Sun where the lines in the Solar
  11. spectrum form
    1. corona
    2. chromosphere
    3. photosphere
    4. nuclear core
  12. Deep in the Sun, energy is transferred by
    1. conduction
    2. convection
    3. radiation
  13. Streams of protons and electrons emitted from the sun produce(s):
    1. quasars
    2. spicules
    3. the solar wind
    4. prominences
    5. granules
  14. During periods of high solar activity, huge cloudlike
  15. structures that appear as great arches extending from the sun are often produced. These solar features are called:
    1. quasars
    2. spicules
    3. the solar wind
    4. prominences
    5. granules
  16. Our galaxy is called:
    1. Milky Way
    2. Pleiades
    3. Panorama galaxy
    4. Andromeda
    5. Orion
  17. Which color stars have the highest surface temperature?
    1. red
    2. white
    3. orange
    4. blue
    5. yellow
  18. The layer of the sun which radiates most of the light that reaches the earth is called the:
    1. ionosphere
    2. chromosphere
    3. corona
    4. megasphere
    5. photosphere
  19. The layer of the solar atmosphere directly above the photosphere is called the:
    1. ionosphere
    2. solarsphere
    3. corona
    4. megasphere
    5. chromosphere
  20. Which color stars have the coolest surface temperature?
    1. red
    2. white
    3. orange
    4. blue
    5. yellow
  21. Which main-sequence stars are the most massive?
    1. red
    2. white
    3. orange
    4. blue
    5. yellow
  22. The source of the sun's energy is:
    1. chemical burning
    2. heat of contraction
    3. nuclear fission
    4. potential energy
    5. nuclear fusion
  23. The final stage for a star which is as massive as the sun:
    1. black hole
    2. red giant
    3. black dwarf
    4. white dwarf
    5. main-sequence
  24. When a main-sequence star has exhausted the hydrogen fuel in its core, it becomes a:
    1. black hole
    2. black dwarf
    3. neutron star
    4. red giant
    5. white dwarf
  25. Stars that are composed of matter in which electrons have combined with protons are called:
    1. black hole
    2. red giant
    3. black dwarf
    4. white dwarf
    5. neutron star
  26. This property of a star can be determined from its color:
    1. mass
    2. surface temperature
    3. stellar distance
    4. volume
    5. velocity
  27. These can be produced during a supernova event:
    1. black hole
    2. red giant
    3. black dwarf
    4. white dwarf
    5. main-sequence star
  28. A star in which light cannot escape because of the immense
  29. gravitational pull at its surface:
    1. black hole
    2. red giant
    3. black dwarf
    4. white dwarf
    5. main sequence star
  30. The black lines across the spectrum of the sun or a star are caused by
    1. planets getting in the way
    2. absorption of light by atoms in the star
    3. emission of light by atoms in the star
    4. chemical reactions
  31. The common image of a telescope, a lens in the front and an eyepiece at the back, is a _________ telescope
    1. refracting
    2. reflecting
    3. compound
    4. achromatic
  32. The largest astronomical telescopes are
    1. refracting
    2. reflecting
    3. compound
    4. achromatic
  33. The largest astronomical telescopes are of that design because
    1. it is cheaper to fabricate large mirrors than lenses
    2. it is cheaper to fabricate large lenses than mirrors
    3. large mirrors absorb more light than lenses
    4. large mirrors require color correction whereas lenses do not.
  34. The Doppler Effect causes light from an object moving toward us to:
    1. be red-shifted
    2. be blue-shifted
    3. undergo no change
    4. become green
  35. The Doppler Effect causes light from an object moving away from us to:
    1. be red-shifted
    2. be blue-shifted
    3. undergo no change
    4. become green
  36. The Doppler Effect causes light from an object moving across our line of sight to:
    1. be red-shifted
    2. be blue-shifted
    3. undergo no change
    4. become green
  37. The constellations as we see them from Earth would change noticeably in (pick the shortest applicable time):
    1. 100 years
    2. 10,000 years
    3. 1,000,000 years
    4. a billion years
  38. Stars in a given constellation:
    1. all formed together
    2. are all moving in the same direction
    3. are all the same type
    4. are usually not physically related
  39. Why is there a North Star but not a South Star?
    1. the Earth's north magnetic pole is stronger
    2. people chose to live in the hemisphere that had a Pole Star
    3. the Earth is on the north side of the Galaxy
    4. just by chance there is a bright star near the north celestial pole.
  40. The celestial equivalent of latitude is:
    1. right ascension
    2. declination
    3. galactic longitude
    4. spherical aberration
  41. To an astronomer, the most important purpose of a telescope is:
    1. great magnification
    2. gathering light
    3. measuring positions
    4. penetrating clouds
  42. To an astronomer, the least important purpose of a telescope is:
    1. great magnification
    2. gathering light
    3. measuring positions
    4. penetrating clouds
  43. Gravity overwhelms all other forces in this object:
    1. Normal Star
    2. White Dwarf
    3. Neutron Star
    4. Black Hole
    5. Red Giant
  44. Largest of all stars
    1. Normal Star
    2. White Dwarf
    3. Neutron Star
    4. Black Hole
    5. Red Giant
  45. Can be a pulsar
    1. Normal Star
    2. White Dwarf
    3. Neutron Star
    4. Black Hole
    5. Red Giant
  46. What the most massive stars become
    1. Normal Star
    2. White Dwarf
    3. Neutron Star
    4. Black Hole
    5. Red Giant
  47. What the sun will probably become next
    1. Normal Star
    2. White Dwarf
    3. Neutron Star
    4. Black Hole
    5. Red Giant
  48. The last stage in the evolution of the Sun
    1. Normal Star
    2. White Dwarf
    3. Neutron Star
    4. Black Hole
    5. Red Giant
  49. Nearest planet with surface visible from Earth
    1. Venus
    2. Mars
    3. Jupiter
    4. Saturn
    5. Mercury
  50. Has a Giant Red Spot
    1. Venus
    2. Mars
    3. Jupiter
    4. Saturn
    5. Mercury
  51. Has four giant moons
    1. Venus
    2. Mars
    3. Jupiter
    4. Saturn
    5. Mercury
  52. Has a runaway greenhouse effect
    1. Venus
    2. Mars
    3. Jupiter
    4. Saturn
    5. Mercury
  53. Has enormous volcanoes and rift valleys
    1. Europa
    2. Mars
    3. Jupiter
    4. Saturn
    5. Mercury
  54. Once had liquid water
    1. Venus
    2. Mars
    3. Jupiter
    4. Saturn
    5. Mercury
  55. Has a moon with an atmosphere
    1. Venus
    2. Mars
    3. Jupiter
    4. Saturn
    5. Mercury
  56. Has clouds of sulfuric acid droplets
    1. Venus
    2. Mars
    3. Jupiter
    4. Saturn
    5. Mercury
  57. Closest to the sun and smallest of the group listed
    1. Venus
    2. Mars
    3. Earth
    4. Saturn
    5. Mercury
  58. Has polar ice caps that expand and contact with its seasons
    1. Venus
    2. Mars
    3. Jupiter
    4. Saturn
    5. Mercury
  59. The principal clue that the surface of a planet is geologically young
    1. Atmosphere
    2. Heavy cratering
    3. Volcanoes
    4. Lack of craters
  60. A moon of Jupiter that has active volcanoes
    1. Titan
    2. Triton
    3. Io
    4. Callisto
    5. Europa
  61. A massive star sometimes explodes in a great explosion called
    1. Supernova
    2. Quasar
    3. Big Bang
    4. Thermonuclear
    5. Neutrino
  62. Why astronomers are not as concerned as one might guess about the "missing mass" in the Universe:
    1. It's probably due to errors of observation
    2. It's been found
    3. There are so many possible explanations
    4. They have no funds to investigate it
  63. Great spiral mass of stars about 100,000 light years across
    1. Nebula
    2. Globular Cluster
    3. Pulsar
    4. Quasar
    5. Galaxy
  64. Technique astronomers use to find distance to nearby stars
    1. Parallax
    2. Spectroscopy
    3. Doppler Shift
  65. Estimated age of the Universe
    1. 1.4 billion years
    2. 13 billion years
    3. 120 billion years
    4. 1.7 trillion years
  66. The color of a star is due to:
    1. Its distance
    2. Its composition
    3. Its temperature
    4. Its age
    5. Its size
  67. All objects exist as the result of a balance between some force and:
    1. Centrifugal force
    2. Electromagnetism
    3. Gravity
    4. Nuclear Forces
    5. Radiation
  68. What force keeps Planets from collapsing?

    1. Radiation
    2. Gravity
    3. Nuclear Forces
    4. Electron repulsion
    5. Forces between atoms
    6. No known force can prevent collapse
  69. What force keeps Normal Stars from collapsing?

    1. Radiation
    2. Gravity
    3. Nuclear Forces
    4. Electron repulsion
    5. Forces between atoms
    6. No known force can prevent collapse
  70. What force keeps White Dwarfs from collapsing?

    1. Radiation
    2. Gravity
    3. Nuclear Forces
    4. Electron repulsion
    5. Forces between atoms
    6. No known force can prevent collapse
  71. What force keeps Neutron Stars from collapsing?

    1. Radiation
    2. Gravity
    3. Nuclear Forces
    4. Electron repulsion
    5. Forces between atoms
    6. No known force can prevent collapse
  72. What force keeps each Black Holes from collapsing?

    1. Radiation
    2. Gravity
    3. Nuclear Forces
    4. Electron repulsion
    5. Forces between atoms
    6. No known force can prevent collapse
  73. Planets are what approximate size?

    1. No size at all
    2. 10 km
    3. 10,000 km
    4. 1,000,000 km
    5. 100,000,000 km
  74. Normal Stars are what approximate size?

    1. No size at all
    2. 10 km
    3. 10,000 km
    4. 1,000,000 km
    5. 100,000,000 km
  75. Giant Stars are what approximate size?

    1. No size at all
    2. 10 km
    3. 10,000 km
    4. 1,000,000 km
    5. 100,000,000 km
  76. White Dwarfs are what approximate size?

    1. No size at all
    2. 10 km
    3. 10,000 km
    4. 1,000,000 km
    5. 100,000,000 km
  77. Neutron Stars are what approximate size?

    1. No size at all
    2. 10 km
    3. 10,000 km
    4. 1,000,000 km
    5. 100,000,000 km
  78. Black Holes are what approximate size?

    1. No size at all
    2. 10 km
    3. 10,000 km
    4. 1,000,000 km
    5. 100,000,000 km
  79. Parallax is:

    1. The apparent shift in a star’s position from one side of the Earth to the other
    2. The apparent shift in a star’s position from one side of the Earth’s orbit to the other
    3. The apparent diameter of a star as seen in a telescope
    4. The amount a star moves in a year due to its own motion
  80. What two elements make up 99.9% of the cosmos?
    1. iron and silicon
    2. hydrogen and helium
    3. carbon and silicon
    4. hydrogen and oxygen
    5. carbon and hydrogen
  81. Where did the heavy elements in the Solar System come from?
    1. comets coming in from outside
    2. formed in earlier generations of stars
    3. formed in the Sun
    4. formed by nuclear reactions as the Solar System was condensing
  82. The spacecraft HIPPARCOS provided us with:

    1. Images of planets around other stars
    2. Vastly improved measurements of the sizes of stars
    3. Images of the most distant galaxies
    4. Vastly improved measurements of the distances of stars
  83. To determine distances in the Solar System, we used observations of which bodies?
    1. Mars and the Moon
    2. Venus and nearby asteroids
    3. Mercury and Saturn
    4. Jupiter and its moons
  84. To determine distances in the Solar System, we must:
    1. Determine the distance to each planet separately
    2. Determine one distance and use Kepler's Third Law to find the rest
    3. Determine the distance to the Moon accurately
    4. Determine the diameter of the Earth accurately
  85. The violent collapse and explosion of a star is termed a:

    1. Supernova
    2. Nebula
    3. Starburst
    4. Stellar Implosion
  86. The heavier (more complex) an element is, the __________
    1. rarer it is in the Universe
    2. more common it is in the universe
    3. less essential it is for life
    4. more likely it is to occur on Earth
    5. more important it is for producing energy in stars
  87. Great spiral mass of stars about 100,000 light years across
    1. Nebula
    2. Globular Cluster
    3. Pulsar
    4. Quasar
    5. Galaxy
  88. Technique astronomers use to find distance to nearby stars
    1. Parallax
    2. Spectroscopy
    3. Doppler Shift
    4. Radar
  89. Deneb, 1600 light years away, is too far even for HIPPARCOS to measure its distance accurately. We estimate its distance by:
    1. Observing its motion
    2. Comparing it to stars of the same type whose distance we can measure
    3. Knowing it's in a globular star cluster
    4. Measuring its red shift
  90. The most likely cause of the eventual extinction of life on earth:
    1. The Sun becoming a supernova
    2. The Sun becomes a red giant
    3. The Sun becomes a white dwarf
    4. The Sun becomes a Quasar
    5. Gradual heating of the earth as the Sun brightens
  91. How Big is our Galaxy?
    1. 1000 light years across
    2. 10,000 light years across
    3. 100,000 light years across
    4. 1,000,000 light years across
  92. Where are we in our Galaxy?
    1. In the central hub
    2. In the disk 2/3 of the way to the edge
    3. At the extreme edge of the disk
    4. Neither in the hub nor the disk
  93. We know our location in our Galaxy by observing what?
    1. The movements of nearby stars
    2. Positions of Globular Star Clusters
    3. Motions of small satellite galaxies
    4. The expansion of the Universe
    5. Areas of star formation in the Galaxy
  94. Our galaxy is in the center of:
    1. We are not at the center of anything
    2. A small group of 100 galaxies
    3. A cluster of 1,000 galaxies
    4. A supercluster of a million galaxies
  95. How is our Sun moving in the galaxy?
    1. Standing Still
    2. Moving straight away from the center
    3. Moving out of the disk plane
    4. Orbiting once every 250 million years
  96. The evidence that galaxies are receding from us is:
    1. They have gotten smaller since we first observed them
    2. They have gotten fainter since we first observed them
    3. Their light is blue-shifted
    4. Their light is red-shifted
  97. The energy released at the Big Bang is now observed as:
    1. Visible light
    2. X-rays
    3. Infrared
    4. Ultraviolet
    5. Faint microwaves
  98. In the evenings in _______ we look toward the center of the galaxy
    1. Summer
    2. Fall
    3. Winter
    4. Spring
  99. Where is the Solar System in relation to the center of the Milky Way?
    1. near the center
    2. at the extreme outer rim
    3. outside it
    4. two-thirds of the way from the center to the rim
  100. These stars give us a distance scale to the galaxies:
    1. Cepheid variables
    2. red giants
    3. white dwarfs
    4. pulsars
  101. Why aren’t astronomers very worried about the "missing mass" in the universe?
    1. They think the entire concept is an error.
    2. The missing mass has recently been accounted for.
    3. There are no ways to estimate the amount of mass in the Universe.
    4. There are so many forms the missing mass could take.
  102. The "missing mass" in the universe is more accurately described as:
    1. Antimatter
    2. Imaginary
    3. Non-luminous
    4. Undiscovered particles

    Matching (More than one answer may be correct)

Matching (More than one answer may be correct)

  1. Normal Star
    1. Gravity overwhelms all other forces
    2. Largest of all stars
    3. Can be a pulsar
    4. What the most massive stars become
    5. What the sun will probably become next
    6. Nuclear fusion is the source of its energy
    7. The final stage in the evolution of the Sun
  2. White Dwarf
    1. Gravity overwhelms all other forces
    2. Largest of all stars
    3. Can be a pulsar
    4. What the most massive stars become
    5. What the sun will probably become next
    6. Nuclear fusion is the source of its energy
    7. The final stage in the evolution of the Sun
  3. Neutron Star
    1. Gravity overwhelms all other forces
    2. Largest of all stars
    3. Can be a pulsar
    4. What the most massive stars become
    5. What the sun will probably become next
    6. Nuclear fusion is the source of its energy
    7. The final stage in the evolution of the Sun
  4. Black Hole
    1. Gravity overwhelms all other forces
    2. Largest of all stars
    3. Can be a pulsar
    4. What the most massive stars become
    5. What the sun will probably become next
    6. Nuclear fusion is the source of its energy
    7. The final stage in the evolution of the Sun
  5. Red Giant
    1. Gravity overwhelms all other forces
    2. Largest of all stars
    3. Can be a pulsar
    4. What the most massive stars become
    5. What the sun will probably become next
    6. Nuclear fusion is the source of its energy
    7. The final stage in the evolution of the Sun

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Created 10 September 2003, Last Update 24 February 2011

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