Oceanography

Steven Dutch, Natural and Applied Sciences, University of Wisconsin - Green Bay
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  1. The oceans cover approximately ____ percent of the earth's surface:
    1. 30
    2. 40
    3. 50
    4. 60
    5. 70
  2. The continents cover approximately _____ percent of the earth's surface:
    1. 30
    2. 40
    3. 50
    4. 60
    5. 70
  3. An isolated remnant of wave erosion is a:
    1. spit
    2. groin
    3. jetty
    4. tombolo
    5. sea stack
  4. A sand ridge connecting an island to the mainland or to another island is a:
    1. jetty
    2. tombolo
    3. sea stack
    4. none of the above
    5. breakwater
  5. The energy that drives surface ocean currents such as the Gulf Stream comes from:
    1. salinity variations
    2. density differences
    3. Coriolis force
    4. wave activity
    5. prevailing winds
  6. The ____ Ocean is largest
    1. Atlantic
    2. Indian
    3. Pacific
    4. Arctic
  7. Which ocean has the greatest average depth
    1. Atlantic
    2. Indian
    3. Pacific
    4. Arctic
  8. The flattest, most featureless areas on Earth are the:
    1. Precambrian shields
    2. coastal plains
    3. abyssal plains
    4. continental margins
    5. continental slopes
  9. The Earth's surface waters probably originated through the process of:
    1. dewatering
    2. crustal fracturing
    3. subduction
    4. erosion
    5. outgassing
  10. Continental shelves:
    1. are composed of pelagic sediments
    2. lie between continental slopes and rises
    3. descend to an average depth of 1,500 m
    4. slope gently from the shoreline to the shelf-slope break
    5. are widest along active continental margins
  11. Much of the continental rise is composed of:
    1. calcareous ooze
    2. sheeted dikes
    3. submarine fans
    4. ophiolite
    5. fringing reefs
  12. The greatest oceanic depths occur at:
    1. aseismic ridges
    2. oceanic trenches
    3. guyots
    4. passive continental margins
    5. the shelf-slope break
  13. A circular reef enclosing a lagoon is a(n):
    1. barrier reef
    2. guyot
    3. seamount
    4. atoll
    5. aseismic
  14. Submarine canyons are most characteristic of the:
    1. continental shelves
    2. rift valleys
    3. abyssal plains
    4. fractures in the sea floor
    5. continental slopes
  15. Graded bedding is a characteristic of:
    1. continental shelves
    2. siliceous ooze
    3. turbidity current deposits
    4. manganese nodules
    5. pelagic clay
  16. Graded bedding is characterized by:
    1. an increase in sediment size from bottom to top
    2. a decrease in sediment size from bottom to top
    3. an unsorted mixture of many different sediment sizes
    4. being found only on the continental slope off the Newfoundland coast.
  17. Which of the following would you not associate with turbidity currents?
    1. deposits of graded beds
    2. formation of seamounts
    3. density current
    4. sediment transport
    5. excavation of submarine canyons
  18. Climatic influences associated with cold currents include:
    1. increased aridity
    2. greater fog frequency
    3. both a and b
    4. neither a nor b
  19. The daily tidal range is greatest during _____ tide:
    1. spring
    2. ebb
    3. neap
    4. either b or c
    5. none of the above
  20. The Coriolis effect:
    1. applies only to tides
    2. is caused by the earth's rotation
    3. exists only in the Northern Hemisphere
    4. is greatest near the equator
    5. results in the ocean's surface currents conforming exactly to the prevailing wind patterns.
    6. governs the spin direction of water draining out of a sink
  21. Which of the following water masses would be the most dense?
    1. warm water with a high salinity
    2. cold water with a high salinity
    3. cold water with a low salinity
    4. warm water with a low salinity
    5. all of these would be equally dense
  22. Because of the Coriolis effect, surface ocean currents are deflected to the ___ of their path of motion in the Northern Hemisphere.
    1. right
    2. left
  23. Concerning the distribution of land and water, which of the following statements is true?
    1. the percentage of land and water is about the same in both the northern and southern hemispheres
    2. the southern hemisphere has much more water surface than the northern hemisphere
    3. the northern hemisphere has much more water surface than the southern hemisphere
  24. Desalination is associated with:
    1. extraction of magnesium from seawater
    2. the formation of manganese nodules
    3. volcanic outgassing
    4. the creation of fresh water
    5. none of the above
  25. The daily tidal range is least during ___ tide:
    1. spring
    2. semidiurnal
    3. flood
    4. ebb
    5. neap
  26. When there are two high tides and two low tides each tidal day, the pattern is describled as:
    1. mixed
    2. diurnal
    3. semidiurnal
  27. Which one of the following salts is most abundant in seawater?
    1. potassium bromide
    2. sodium chloride
    3. magnesium chloride
    4. hydrogen borate
    5. sodium bicarbonate
  28. Which one of the following is not a resource extracted from seawater?
    1. bromine
    2. gold
    3. common salt (sodium chloride)
    4. magnesium
  29. A flat, benchlike surface cut in rock by wave action is a:
    1. sea stack
    2. spit
    3. jetty
    4. none of the above
    5. tombolo
  30. Chesapeake Bay is an excellent example of a(n):
    1. coastal barrier
    2. fiord
    3. estuary
    4. primary coastline
    5. emergent coastline
  31. Why is the ocean salty?
    1. sodium and chlorine are added by rain water
    2. sodium and chlorine are the elements least likely to be removed by chemical and biological processes
    3. submarine volcanic eruptions contribute sodium and chlorine
    4. sodium and chlorine are the most abundant elements brought down by rivers
    5. sodium and chlorine are created by marine organisms

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Created January 3, 1997; Last Update 24 February 2011

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