Plate Tectonics

Steven Dutch, Natural and Applied Sciences, University of Wisconsin - Green Bay
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  1. The earth's crustal plates move
    1. A few meters per year
    2. a few millimeters per 1000 years
    3. a few centimeters per year
    4. a few millimeters a day
  2. The type of fault most often associated with subduction zones:
    1. thrust
    2. normal
    3. strike slip
    4. oblique
  3. Can continents be subducted?
    1. Yes, the continent of Atlantis was.
    2. No, continental crust is too thick and light
  4. What Alfred Wegener used to reassemble the continents
    1. shorelines
    2. ancient glacial deposits
    3. fossil assemblages
    4. all of the above
  5. The type of plate boundary least likely to have volcanoes
    1. subduction zone
    2. ridge or spreading center
    3. transform fault
  6. Reversals of the Earth's magnetic field
    1. cause sea-floor spreading
    2. produce "stripe" patterns in the magnetism of ocean-floor rocks
    3. cause orogenies
    4. are responsible for subduction
  7. Hot spots
    1. produce "tracks" as the plates move over them
    2. occur only under the ocean crusts
    3. occur only under the continents
    4. are the cause of regional metamorphism
  8. The best estimate for the real edge of the continental crust
    1. the edge of the continental shelf
    2. the shoreline
    3. the edge of exposed ancient rocks
    4. the crest of the mid-ocean ridge
  9. Orogenies occur at
    1. mid-ocean ridge
    2. subduction zones
    3. transform faults
  10. When a plate that is being subducted gets down to about 700 kilometers,
    1. it no longer produces earthquakes
    2. it has been largely absorbed into the mantle
    3. it has completely melted
  11. The fact that the magnetic pole seems to have moved throughout geologic is best explained by:
    1. the motions of the continents
    2. the axis of rotation moves
    3. the magnetic pole moves
    4. errors in data interpretation
    5. none of these
  12. The following can not be directly attributed to the interaction of lithospheric plates:
    1. formation of the Great Lakes
    2. the Appalachian Mountains
    3. opening of the Red Sea
    4. none of these
    5. the formation of the Himalayan Mts.
  13. The oceanic crust:
    1. is the same age throughout a given ocean basin
    2. ranges in age from Paleozoic to Mesozoic
    3. becomes progressively older toward the mid-ocean ridges
    4. becomes progressively younger toward the mid-ocean ridges
    5. none of these
  14. According to plate tectonics, the San Andreas Fault is:
    1. an obduction zone
    2. a subduction zone
    3. a transform plate boundary
    4. none of these
    5. a divergent plate boundary
  15. Orogeny, sea-floor spreading, and continental drift are all related to the action of:
    1. magnetism
    2. gravity
    3. convection currents in the mantle
    4. hot spots
  16. We can use paleomagnetic studies to determine:
    1. the location of continents in the past
    2. the location of the magnetic field in the future
    3. ancient climates
    4. the safety of space vehicles
  17. Magmas that feed island-arc volcanoes:
    1. could not have been derived form the Benioff Zone according to geochemical studies
    2. occur over very wide zones thousands of kilometers in width
    3. are located where they are as a result of magma generation in the Benioff Zone
    4. rise along transform faults
  18. Terms describing the processes involved in plate tectonics include:
    1. subduction
    2. sea-floor spreading
    3. transform faulting
    4. all of the previous
  19. Zones were subduction occurs are characteristically marked by:
    1. island arcs
    2. mountains of volcanic or collision origin
    3. deep trenches
    4. any of the previous
  20. All of the following are names given to supercontinents that later broke up except:
    1. Gondwana
    2. Tethys
    3. Pangaea
    4. Laurasia
    5. Rodinia
  21. At a mid-ocean ridge, you would expect to find:
    1. very ancient rocks
    2. very thick accumulations of sediment
    3. thrust faults
    4. relatively young rocks
  22. Why volcanoes occur near subduction zones:
    1. compression heats the rocks
    2. the descending slab begins to melt
    3. hot rocks is uplifted by mountain-building events
    4. tension opens cracks so material from the core can rise
  23. The San Andreas Fault is:
    1. a transform fault
    2. a subduction zone
    3. a rift valley
    4. a zone of collision between two continents
  24. Using magnetic patterns on the ocean floor, we can reconstruct the past positions of continents:
    1. in latitude only
    2. in their correct relative positions
    3. in longitude only
    4. only if they have not rotated
  25. The magnetic-pattern method of reconstruction will not work:
    1. if the ocean crust bearing the patterns has been subducted
    2. before the breakup of Pangaea
    3. neither a nor b
    4. both a and b
  26. Using paleomagnetic pole determinations, we can reconstruct the past positions of continents:
    1. in latitude only
    2. in their correct relative positions
    3. in longitude only
    4. only if the have not rotated
  27. Which of these did Alfred Wegener rely on to reconstruct the past configurations of the continents?
    1. ancient glacial deposits
    2. magnetic patterns on the sea floor
    3. paleomagnetism
    4. computer-aided fitting of the continents
  28. In reconstructing the fit of the continents, geologists generally use:
    1. the shorelines of the present
    2. the shorelines at the time the continents were together
    3. the present edge of the continental shelf
  29. The method used above is
    1. highly exact and results in a perfect fit
    2. somewhat approximate and leaves small gaps and overlaps
  30. An area where fitting of the continents does not work and where major problems remain to be solved:
    1. the fit between Greenland and Europe
    2. the fit between Africa and Brazil
    3. the fit between Africa and the eastern U.S.
    4. the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean
  31. Which of the following will allow you to determine the absolute motion of plates?
    1. hot spots and their tracks
    2. the age of the sediment directly above any portion of the ocean crust
    3. magnetic reversals in the sea-floor crust
    4. mapping sediment thickness in the ocean basins
    5. all of these
  32. The formation of the island of Hawaii and the Loihi Seamount are the result of:
    1. oceanic-oceanic plate boundaries
    2. hot spots
    3. divergent plate boundaries
    4. transform boundaries
    5. oceanic-continental plate boundaries
  33. Back-arc basins are associated with _____ plate boundaries.
    1. divergent
    2. convergent
    3. transform
  34. The San Andreas fault is an example of a(n) _____ boundaries.
    1. divergent
    2. oceanic-continental
    3. convergent
    4. continental-continental
    5. transform
  35. Magnetic surveys of the ocean basins indicate that:
    1. the oceanic crust is oldest adjacent to spreading ridges
    2. the oceanic crust is youngest adjacent to the continents
    3. the oceanic crust is youngest adjacent to spreading ridges
    4. the oceanic crust is the same age in all ocean basins
    5. answers (a) and (b)
  36. Plates:
    1. are the same thickness everywhere
    2. vary in thickness
    3. include the crust and upper mantle
    4. answers (a) and (c)
    5. answers (b) and (c)
  37. Divergent boundaries are the areas where:
    1. new continental lithosphere is forming
    2. new oceanic lithosphere is forming
    3. two plates come together
    4. two plates slide past each other
    5. answers (b) and (d)
  38. Continental crust an overall composition corresponding closely to that of:
    1. basalt
    2. iron-nickel alloy
    3. sandstone
    4. gabbro
    5. granodiorite
  39. Oceanic crust is:
    1. 20 to 90 km thick
    2. thinnest at spreading ridges
    3. granitic in composition
    4. less dense than continental crust
    5. the primary source of magma
  40. Alfred Wegener was not a geologist but a:
    1. physicist
    2. zoologist
    3. botanist
    4. meteorologist
    5. chemist
  41. Along what type of plate boundary does subduction occur?
    1. divergent
    2. transform
    3. convergent
  42. The west coast of South America is an example of a(n) _____ plate boundary.
    1. divergent
    2. oceanic-continental
    3. continental-continental
    4. transform
    5. oceanic-oceanic
  43. The man who is credited with developing the continental drift hypothesis is:
    1. Wilson
    2. Wegener
    3. Hess
    4. du Toit
    5. Vine
  44. The southern part of Pangaea, consisting of South America, Africa, India, Australia, and Antarctica, is called:
    1. Gondwana
    2. Laurentia
    3. Laurasia
    4. Pacific
    5. Atlantis
  45. Which of the following has been used as evidence for continental drift?
    1. continental fit
    2. paleomagnetism
    3. fossil plants and animals
    4. all of these
  46. The driving mechanism of plate movement is believed to be:
    1. isostasy
    2. rotation of the earth
    3. magnetism
    4. tidal effects
    5. thermal convection
  47. Which of the following statements is correct?
    1. Most of the continental margins around the Atlantic are passive
    2. Oceanic ridges are composed largely of deformed sedimentary rocks.
    3. The deposits of turbidity currents consist of calcareous ooze
    4. Most of the Earth's intermediate and deep earthquakes occur at or near oceanic ridges.
    5. Oceanic crust is thicker than continental crust.
  48. Massive sulfide deposits form:
    1. on passive continental margins
    2. as accumulations of microscopic shells on the sea floor
    3. by precipitation of minerals near hydrothermal vents
    4. from sediments derived from continents
    5. in oceanic trenches
  49. Which of the following is not characteristic of an active continental margin?
    1. volcanism
    2. volcanic arc
    3. earthquakes
    4. wide continental shelf
    5. oceanic trench
  50. Sediments deposited in an oceanic trench and then deformed and scraped off against the landward side of the trench during an orogeny form a(n):
    1. divergent margin complex
    2. accretionary wedge
    3. back-arc basic facies
    4. island arc system
    5. orogenic continental margin complex
  51. An excellent example of a present-day mountain system forming as a result of a continent-continent collision is the:
    1. Andes
    2. Alps
    3. Rocky Mountains
    4. Appalachians
    5. Himalayas
  52. In mountain systems that form at continental margins:
    1. the Earth's crust is thicker than average
    2. most deformation is caused by tensional stresses
    3. little or no volcanic activity occurs
    4. stretching and thinning of the continental crust occur
    5. most deformation results from rifting
  53. In which of the following is an orogeny currently taking place?
    1. east coast of North America
    2. central Africa
    3. west coast of South America
    4. western Europe
    5. the Appalachians
  54. Mid-oceanic ridges are examples of what type of boundary?
    1. divergent
    2. subduction
    3. convergent
    4. hot spot
    5. transform
  55. The San Andreas fault separating the Pacific plate from the North American plate is an example of what type of boundary?
    1. divergent
    2. subduction
    3. convergent
    4. transform
  56. A plate is composed of the:
    1. core and lower mantle
    2. lower mantle and asthenosphere
    3. asthenosphere and upper mantle
    4. upper mantle and crust
    5. continental and oceanic crust
  57. The actual process that makes plates move is probably
    1. ridge push
    2. mantle flow driven by convection
    3. slab pull at subduction zones
    4. all of these
  58. A descending oceanic plate starts to melt at depths of about:
    1. 10 km
    2. 1000 km
    3. 100 km
    4. 2000 km
    5. 500 km

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Created January 3, 1997 Last Update 24 February 2011

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