Minerals

Steven Dutch, Natural and Applied Sciences, University of Wisconsin - Green Bay
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  1. The two most abundant elements in the Earth's crust are:
    1. iron and magnesium
    2. silicon and oxygen
    3. carbon and potassium
    4. sand and clay
    5. sodium and nitrogen
  2. The sharing of electrons by adjacent atoms is a type of bonding called:
    1. hydrogen
    2. tetrahedral
    3. covalent
    4. ionic
    5. silicate
  3. A chemical element is a substance made up of atoms, all of which have the same:
    1. atomic mass number
    2. size
    3. number of neutrons
    4. weight
    5. number of protons
  4. An example of a common silicate mineral is:
    1. calcite
    2. hematite
    3. quartz
    4. halite
    5. pyrite
  5. The ratio of a mineral's weight to the weight of an equal volume of water is its:
    1. specific gravity or density
    2. atomic mass number
    3. luster
    4. cleavage
    5. hardness
  6. The atomic number of an element is determined by the:
    1. number of electrons in its outermost shell
    2. number of protons in its nucleus
    3. diameter of its most common isotope
    4. number of neutrons plus electrons in its nucleus
    5. total number of neutrons orbiting the nucleus
  7. To which of the following groups do most minerals in the Earth's crust belong?
    1. oxides
    2. halides
    3. carbonates
    4. silicates
    5. sulfates
  8. When an atom loses or gains electrons, it becomes a(n):
    1. isotope
    2. neutron
    3. proton
    4. native element
    5. ion
  9. These minerals have good cleavage
    1. silicates
    2. sulfides
    3. oxides
    4. carbonates
  10. Anions are ____________ charged because they have _________ electrons:
    1. negatively ... lost
    2. positively .... lost
    3. positively ... gained
    4. negatively .... gained
    5. neutrally ... neither lost nor gained
  11. After silicates, the most important rock-forming minerals:
    1. oxides
    2. sulfates
    3. halides
    4. carbonates
  12. Lacks good cleavage:
    1. mica
    2. quartz
    3. calcite
    4. halite
  13. Density of minerals refers to:
    1. weight per unit volume
    2. weight relative to water
    3. both a and b
    4. neither a nor b
  14. The single most abundant mineral on earth:
    1. hematite
    2. calcite
    3. gypsum
    4. amphibole
    5. quartz
  15. Which is a phyllosilicate?
    1. garnet
    2. clay minerals
    3. amphibole
    4. pyroxene
  16. Calcite will scratch glass. True or false?
    1. True
    2. False
  17. Most gem minerals (except diamond) belong to the following groups:
    1. silicates and oxides
    2. sulfates and elements
    3. elements and oxides
    4. sulfates and carbonates
    5. sulfides and oxides
  18. Bonding in minerals is mostly:
    1. ionic
    2. metallic
    3. covalent
    4. a mixture of these
  19. The two most abundant elements in the Earth's crust are:
    1. nickel and zinc
    2. nitrogen and carbon
    3. oxygen and silicon
    4. chlorine and iron
  20. The charged atoms that make up most crystal structures:
    1. protons
    2. tetrahedra
    3. catalysts
    4. ions
  21. Pyrite is:
    1. a silicate
    2. an important iron ore
    3. water-soluble
    4. none of the above
  22. Minerals are classified on the basis of:
    1. their negatively charged atoms (anions)
    2. their positively charged atoms (cations)
    3. their oxygen content
    4. their metal content
  23. ____________________ are examples of sheet silicates:
    1. micas and clay minerals
    2. pyroxenes and amphiboles
    3. olivine and feldspar
    4. staurolite and quartz
  24. The tendency of some minerals to break along smooth planes
    1. crystallization
    2. fracture
    3. weathering
    4. cleavage
  25. The most common single mineral on Earth is:
    1. chromium
    2. copper
    3. halite
    4. quartz
  26. Cations are ____________ charged because they have _________ electrons:
    1. negatively ... lost
    2. positively .... lost
    3. positively ... gained
    4. negatively .... gained
    5. neutrally ... neither lost nor gained
  27. These minerals are among the leading contributors to acid rain:
    1. sulfates
    2. sulfides
    3. silicates
    4. nitrates
  28. The property that causes salt to come out of the salt shaker as tiny cubes:
    1. density or specific gravity
    2. crystal form
    3. fracture
    4. hardness
    5. cleavage
  29. Which is not a phyllosilicate (sheet silicate)?
    1. mica
    2. clay minerals
    3. serpentine asbestos
    4. pyroxene
  30. You can identify diamonds by seeing if they scratch glass. True or false?
    1. True
    2. False
  31. Most ore minerals belong to the following groups:
    1. silicates and carbonates
    2. sulfates and elements
    3. elements and oxides
    4. sulfates and carbonates
    5. sulfides and oxides
  32. The silicon atom has a positive charge of 4, and oxygen has a negative charge of 2. Accordingly, the ion group (SiO4) has a:
    1. positive charge of 2
    2. positive charge of 4
    3. negative charge of 2
    4. negative charge of 4
    5. negative charge of 1
  33. Calcite and dolomite are:
    1. oxide minerals of great value
    2. ferromagnesian silicates possessing a sheet structure
    3. carbonate minerals
    4. sulfates found in evaporite deposits
  34. Many minerals break along closely spaced planes and are said to possess:
    1. specific gravity
    2. fracture
    3. cleavage
    4. double
    5. covalent bonds
  35. The chemical formula for olivine is (Mg,Fe)2SiO4, which means that in addition to silica:
    1. magnesium and iron can substitute for one another
    2. magnesium is more common than iron
    3. magnesium is heavier than iron
    4. all olivine contains both magnesium and iron
    5. more magnesium than iron occurs in the Earth's crust
  36. The basic building block of all silicate minerals is the:
    1. silicon sheet
    2. silicate double chain
    3. oxygen-silicon cube
    4. silica framework
    5. silica tetrahedron
  37. This mineral suite includes many major ores:
    1. halides
    2. sulfides
    3. sulfates
    4. carbonates
  38. A mineral suite that contains radicals
    1. oxides
    2. sulfides
    3. halides
    4. sulfates
  39. Which property is most directly related to the closeness of atoms in a mineral?
    1. hardness
    2. density
    3. cleavage
    4. fracture
  40. Which property is related to planes of weakness between atoms in a mineral?
    1. hardness
    2. density
    3. cleavage
    4. fracture
  41. Which property is related to the strength of bonding between atoms in a mineral?
    1. hardness
    2. density
    3. cleavage
    4. fracture
  42. Which property is least reliable in identifying minerals?
    1. hardness
    2. density
    3. cleavage
    4. color
  43. Which of these factors can affect the color of a mineral?
    1. weathering
    2. surface coatings
    3. grain size
    4. chemical impurities
    5. All of these can affect the color of minerals.
  44. Hardness refers to:
    1. resistance to chemical alteration.
    2. difficulty in breaking.
    3. roughness.
    4. resistance to scratching.
  45. The property that causes salt to come out of a salt shaker as tiny cubes:
    1. hardness
    2. density
    3. cleavage
    4. fracture
  46. The property that makes gold panning possible:
    1. hardness
    2. density
    3. cleavage
    4. fracture
  47. The single most important group of minerals in abundance:
    1. silicates
    2. carbonates
    3. oxides
    4. sulfates
  48. Limestone and dolomite are made from these minerals:
    1. silicates
    2. carbonates
    3. oxides
    4. sulfates
  49. Tend to be dense, metallic in luster, and often have cubic crystals:
    1. sulfides
    2. carbonates
    3. oxides
    4. sulfates
  50. Have good cleavage and fizz in acid:
    1. silicates
    2. carbonates
    3. oxides
    4. sulfates
  51. Light in color and weight, good cleavage, often water-soluble:
    1. silicates
    2. carbonates
    3. oxides
    4. halides
  52. A hard mineral is most likely to be one of these:
    1. silicates
    2. carbonates
    3. halides
    4. sulfates
  53. Gold, diamonds and graphite are examples::
    1. native elements
    2. carbonates
    3. oxides
    4. sulfates
  54. Quartz is one of these:
    1. sheet silicate
    2. chain silicate
    3. silicate with single tetrahedra
    4. framework silicate
  55. Mica is an example:
    1. sheet silicate
    2. chain silicate
    3. silicate with single tetrahedra
    4. framework silicate
  56. Amphibole and Pyroxene are examples:
    1. sheet silicate
    2. chain silicate
    3. silicate with single tetrahedra
    4. framework silicate
  57. Most likely to split into thin sheets:
    1. mica
    2. halite
    3. calcite
    4. quartz
  58. Most likely to split into splintery fragments:
    1. sheet silicate
    2. chain silicate
    3. silicate with single tetrahedra
    4. framework silicate
  59. Chain silicates include:
    1. clays and micas
    2. amphiboles and pyroxenes
    3. feldspars
    4. olivine and garnet
  60. Which has the lowest hardness?:
    1. feldspar
    2. calcite
    3. topaz
    4. gypsum
  61. Quartz:
    1. can scratch glass.
    2. has good cleavage
    3. has density of 5 grams per cubic centimeter
    4. dissolves in acid
  62. Calcite:
    1. can scratch glass.
    2. has good cleavage
    3. has density of 5 grams per cubic centimeter
    4. dissolves in acid
  63. Which is likely to have the highest density?
    1. halide
    2. sulfate
    3. sulfide
    4. carbonate
  64. Has silica tetrahedra arranged in three-dimensional networks:
    1. mica
    2. olivine
    3. halite
    4. feldspar
  65. Which property is not desirable in a gemstone?
    1. hardness
    2. beauty
    3. rarity
    4. good cleavage
    5. ability to refract light
  66. Atoms of this element occupy more space in the crust than all other atoms combined:
    1. oxygen
    2. chlorine
    3. sulfur
    4. silicon
  67. This kind of atomic bonding holds wood, plastic, and people together:
    1. covalent
    2. metallic
    3. ionic
    4. organic
  68. This kind of atomic bonding holds steel girders and jet airplanes together:
    1. covalent
    2. metallic
    3. ionic
    4. organic
  69. This kind of atomic bonding holds most minerals together:
    1. covalent
    2. metallic
    3. ionic
    4. organic
  70. Which is not a type of atomic bonding?
    1. covalent
    2. metallic
    3. ionic
    4. organic
  71. The most abundant negatively-charged ion in the earth's crust:
    1. oxygen
    2. silicon
    3. sulfur
    4. iron
  72. The most abundant positively-charged ion in the earth's crust:
    1. oxygen
    2. silicon
    3. sulfur
    4. iron
  73. The atomic number of an element is determined by its:
    1. number of protons.
    2. number of neutrons.
    3. total of protons plus neutrons.
    4. number of electrons.
  74. The atomic weight of an element is determined by its:
    1. number of protons.
    2. number of neutrons.
    3. total of protons plus neutrons.
    4. number of electrons.
  75. This changes easily in response to chemical reactions:
    1. number of protons
    2. number of neutrons
    3. total of protons plus neutrons
    4. number of electrons
  76. After oxygen, the most abundant negatively-charged ion in the earth's crust:
    1. chlorine
    2. silicon
    3. sulfur
    4. iron
  77. Which is true of crystal form and cleavage?
    1. Every cleavage face is a possible crystal face.
    2. Every crystal face is a cleavage face.
    3. Every crystal possesses cleavage.
    4. Only minerals that occur as good crystals have cleavage.
  78. Saying that minerals have "crystalline structure" means:
    1. they all occur as crystals
    2. they all have an orderly internal arrangement of atoms
    3. they all have good cleavage
    4. they all have ions

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Created 15 Jan 1996
Last Update 22 Sept., 1997

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