The Oceans

Steven Dutch, Natural and Applied Sciences, University of Wisconsin - Green Bay
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  1. The oceans cover approximately ____ percent of the earth's surface:
    1. 30
    2. 40
    3. 50
    4. 60
    5. 70
  2. The continents cover approximately _____ percent of the earth's surface:
    1. 30
    2. 40
    3. 50
    4. 60
    5. 70
  3. The energy that drives surface ocean currents such as the Gulf Stream comes from:
    1. salinity variations
    2. density differences
    3. Coriolis force
    4. wave activity
    5. prevailing winds
  4. The ____ Ocean is largest
    1. Atlantic
    2. Indian
    3. Pacific
    4. Arctic
  5. Which ocean has the greatest average depth?
    1. Atlantic
    2. Indian
    3. Pacific
    4. Arctic
  6. The flattest, most featureless areas on Earth are the:
    1. Precambrian shields
    2. coastal plains
    3. abyssal plains
    4. continental margins
    5. continental slopes
  7. The Earth's surface waters probably originated through the process of:
    1. dewatering
    2. crustal fracturing
    3. subduction
    4. erosion
    5. outgassing
  8. Continental shelves:
    1. are composed of pelagic sediments
    2. lie between continental slopes and rises
    3. descend to an average depth of 1,500 m
    4. slope gently from the shoreline to the shelf-slope break
    5. are widest along active continental margins
  9. Much of the continental rise is composed of:
    1. calcareous ooze
    2. sheeted dikes
    3. submarine fans
    4. ophiolite
    5. fringing reefs
  10. The greatest oceanic depths occur at:
    1. aseismic ridges
    2. oceanic trenches
    3. guyots
    4. passive continental margins
    5. the shelf-slope break
  11. Which one of the following is not part of the continental margin?
    1. continental shelf
    2. continental rise
    3. continental slope
    4. continental trench
  12. Submarine canyons are most characteristic of the:
    1. continental shelves
    2. rift valleys
    3. abyssal plains
    4. fractures in the sea floor
    5. continental slopes
  13. Graded bedding is a characteristic of:
    1. continental shelves
    2. siliceous ooze
    3. turbidity current deposits
    4. manganese nodules
    5. pelagic clay
  14. Graded bedding is characterized by:
    1. an increase in sediment size from bottom to top
    2. a decrease in sediment size from bottom to top
    3. an unsorted mixture of many different sediment sizes
    4. being found only on the continental slope off the Newfoundland coast.
  15. Which of the following would you not associate with turbidity currents?
    1. deposits of graded beds
    2. formation of seamounts
    3. density current
    4. sediment transport
    5. excavation of submarine canyons
  16. Climatic influences associated with cold currents include:
    1. increased aridity
    2. greater fog frequency
    3. both a and b
    4. neither a nor b
  17. The daily tidal range is greatest during _____ tide:
    1. spring
    2. ebb
    3. neap
    4. all of the above
    5. none of the above
  18. The Coriolis effect:
    1. applies only to tides
    2. is caused by the earth's rotation
    3. exists only in the Northern Hemisphere
    4. is greatest near the equator
    5. results in the ocean's surface currents conforming exactly to the prevailing wind patterns.
    6. governs the spin direction of water draining out of a sink
  19. Which of the following water masses would be the most dense?
    1. warm water with a high salinity
    2. cold water with a high salinity
    3. cold water with a low salinity
    4. warm water with a low salinity
    5. all of these would be equally dense
  20. Because of the Coriolis effect, surface ocean currents are deflected to the ___ of their path of motion in the Northern Hemisphere.
    1. right
    2. left
  21. Concerning the distribution of land and water, which of the following statements is true?
    1. the percentage of land and water is about the same in both the northern and southern hemispheres
    2. the southern hemisphere has much more water surface than the northern hemisphere
    3. the northern hemisphere has much more water surface than the southern hemisphere
  22. Desalination is associated with:
    1. extraction of magnesium from seawater
    2. the formation of manganese nodules
    3. volcanic outgassing
    4. the creation of fresh water
    5. none of the above
  23. The daily tidal range is least during ___ tide:
    1. spring
    2. semidiurnal
    3. flood
    4. ebb
    5. neap
  24. When there are two high tides and two low tides each tidal day, the pattern is described as:
    1. mixed
    2. diurnal
    3. semidiurnal
  25. Which one of the following salts is most abundant in seawater?
    1. potassium bromide
    2. sodium chloride
    3. magnesium chloride
    4. hydrogen borate
    5. sodium bicarbonate
  26. Which one of the following is not a resource extracted from seawater?
    1. bromine
    2. gold
    3. common salt (sodium chloride)
    4. magnesium
  27. The height, length, and period of a wave depend upon:
    1. the length of time the wind has blown
    2. the wind speed
    3. the fetch
    4. all of the above
    5. only a and b
  28. Which of the following is correct regarding a wave in the open ocean?
    1. water particles move in an almost circular path
    2. such waves are called waves of oscillation
    3. the wave form moves forward but the water particles do not advance appreciably
    4. all of the above
    5. only b and c
  29. Why is the ocean salty?
    1. sodium and chlorine are added by rain water
    2. sodium and chlorine are the elements least likely to be removed by chemical and biological processes
    3. submarine volcanic eruptions contribute sodium and chlorine
    4. sodium and chlorine are the most abundant elements brought down by rivers
    5. sodium and chlorine are created by marine organisms
  30. What kinds of sediments are produced by marine micro-organisms?
    1. Iron and magnesium
    2. Siliceous and calcareous
    3. Clay and Silt
    4. Glacio-Marine
    5. Evaporite
  31. What's the most likely mechanism for getting coarse sediments far out to sea?
    1. Wind
    2. River currents
    3. Marine micro-organisms
    4. Attached to ice
  32. Why don't calcareous sediments form in the deep oceans?
    1. It's too cold
    2. There's no sunlight for growth
    3. Calcium carbonate dissolves at great depths
    4. There's no oxygen
    5. There are no nutrients for growth
  33. The high tide in an open ocean basin:
    1. Moves from the shore in to the center
    2. Revolves like the spoke of a wheel
    3. Moves from east to west
    4. Follows the Moon exactly
    5. Moves from the center outward to the shore
  34. Large areas of the ocean floor are rich in nodules that contain
    1. Magnesium
    2. Copper
    3. Manganese
    4. Titanium
    5. Aluminum
  35. How far offshore can wind-blown sediments get in the ocean basins?
    1. 10 km offshore
    2. Thousands of kilometers
    3. 100 km
    4. Less than a kilometer
  36. What is the best estimate for the boundary between continental and oceanic crust?
    1. The mid-ocean ridge
    2. The shoreline
    3. The 100-meter depth contour
    4. The middle of the continental slope

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Created 17 October 2003; Last Update 24 February 2011

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