Earthquakes and Seismology

Steven Dutch, Natural and Applied Sciences, University of Wisconsin - Green Bay
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  1. Recently, a number of large earthquakes have been reported as exceeding magnitude 9. The reason is:
    1. earthquakes are getting stronger
    2. our records of earlier earthquakes were incomplete
    3. the magnitude scale for the strongest earthquakes has been redefined
  2. A seismograph is basically a:
    1. lens
    2. wheel
    3. lever
    4. pendulum
  3. The approximate deepest level of earthquakes:
    1. 10 Km
    2. 100 Km
    3. 300 Km
    4. 700 Km
  4. If you are facing a right-lateral fault, during an earthquake
    1. the opposite side of the fault moves to the right
    2. your side of the fault moves down
    3. your side of the fault moves to the right
    4. the opposite side of the fault moves down
  5. Can a seismic wave be reflected off the surface of the earth's core.
    1. yes
    2. no
  6. All earthquakes are located along plate boundaries.
    1. true
    2. false
  7. If an earthquake has a certain intensity 10 km from the fault rupture, the intensity 100 km away will probably be:
    1. greater
    2. less
    3. the same
    4. impossible to predict
  8. The least likely to cause casualties in earthquakes:
    1. building collapse
    2. shaking and vibration
    3. fire
    4. landslides
  9. Seismologists believe the Earth's core is liquid because:
    1. certain types of seismic waves do not pass through liquids
    2. the Earth wobbles on its axis
    3. it's the most logical conclusion
    4. molten rock sometimes erupts on the surface
  10. Most tsunamis occur
    1. in the Pacific
    2. during hurricanes
    3. in the Indian Ocean
    4. in Hawaii
  11. Why no earthquake greater than magnitude 10 has ever been observed:
    1. It is mathematically impossible
    2. The Richter Scale only goes to 8.
    3. We haven't been observing long enough.
    4. The crust can't store that much strain energy.
  12. It takes at least ___ seismographs at different locations to locate earthquakes accurately.
    1. six
    2. three
    3. two
    4. four
  13. An earthquake with negative magnitude
    1. is very tiny
    2. is very large
    3. is impossible
  14. It takes ___ earthquakes of magnitude 4 to release as much energy as one of magnitude 5.
    1. 5 x 4 or 20
    2. 5/4 or 1.25
    3. 5+4 or 9
    4. 30
  15. In the continental U.S., earthquakes occur
    1. only in California
    2. only west of the rockies
    3. mostly in the West but occasionally in the East
    4. in a band extending from Los Angeles to Charleston
  16. Who's most likely to feel an earthquake?
    1. someone driving a car
    2. someone crossing a bridge
    3. someone on the top floor of a skyscraper
    4. someone sitting on the ground
  17. Why earthquakes cause such large death tolls in Third World countries
    1. weak but heavy construction materials
    2. more tsunamis
    3. poor hospitals
    4. stronger earthquakes
  18. Seismograph pendulums are designed
    1. to swing at any period at all
    2. to swing with a period longer than seismic waves
    3. to swing with a period shorter than seismic waves
    4. to swing as long as possible once starte
  19. Why it is inaccurate to say the Richter Scale "runs from one to ten"?
    1. It actually starts at zero.
    2. It actually ends at nine
    3. It starts at zero but has no upper limit.
    4. It ends at ten but has no lower limit
    5. It has to upper or lower limit.
  20. If a magnitude 3 earthquake releases one unit of energy, a magnitude zero quake:
    1. is impossible
    2. will release 27,000 units
    3. will release zero energy
    4. will release 1/27,000
    5. will release -3 units units
  21. Seismic waves arrive in the following order:
    1. P,S, surface
    2. P, surface, S
    3. S, surface, P
    4. S,P, surface
    5. surface, S,P
  22. Ships at sea off California in 1906 felt the earthquake shock. They probably felt:
    1. the S wave
    2. the P wave
    3. the surface waves
    4. a tsunami
  23. A region where our theories of plate tectonics do not provide a good explanation for earthquakes yet.
    1. the San Andreas Fault
    2. the New Madrid, Missouri region
    3. the Andes
    4. Iceland
  24. The most dangerous type of construction for earthquake-prone regions:
    1. adobe
    2. reinforced masonry
    3. concrete block
    4. steel frame
    5. wood frame
  25. The instrument used to record earthquakes waves is called:
    1. quakeometer
    2. strainometer
    3. seismogram
    4. none of these
    5. seismograph
  26. From a seismogram, the distance to an earthquake can be determined by measuring:
    1. the speed of the surface waves
    2. the ratio of the amplitude of the largest P and S waves
    3. the arrival times of the surface waves
    4. the difference in the arrival times of the P and S waves
    5. none of these
  27. The arrival time of the P and S waves recorded at one seismic station can determine:
    1. the location of the earthquake
    2. the damage at the focus
    3. the distance to the earthquake
    4. none of these
    5. the intensity of the earthquake
  28. The outer core of the earth is probably liquid because:
    1. it does not transmit S waves
    2. it must float on top of the inner core
    3. it does not transmit P and S waves
    4. it has high rigidity
    5. none of these
  29. Another name for a seismic sea wave is:
    1. tidal wave
    2. tsunami
    3. elastic sea wave
    4. bonsai
    5. none of these
  30. The core of the earth is composed primarily of:
    1. iron and sulfur
    2. iron and nickel
    3. nickel and cobalt
    4. none of these
    5. silicon and oxygen
  31. Earthquakes have been found to originate:
    1. only in the earth's crust
    2. at all depths up to 700 km
    3. only above the Moho
    4. none of these
  32. The scale for measuring earthquake intensity is:
    1. Mercalli
    2. Richter
    3. Moh's
    4. Wentworth's
  33. The vast majority of all earthquake foci occur at a depth of _____ kilometers.
    1. 20-40
    2. 40-60
    3. 60-80
    4. 80-100
    5. 100 and more
  34. With few exceptions, the most destructive earthquakes are:
    1. shallow focus
    2. intermediate focus
    3. deep focus
  35. The majority of all earthquakes occur in the:
    1. Mediterranean-Asiatic belt
    2. circum-Pacific belt
    3. interior of plates
    4. along spreading ridges
    5. circum-Atlantic belt
  36. Fractures along with no movement has occurred are:
    1. joints
    2. axial planes
    3. monoclines
    4. fold limbs
    5. transform faults
  37. The Earth's core is inferred to be:
    1. hollow
    2. composed of rock with a high silica content
    3. completely molten
    4. composed mostly of iron and nickel
    5. completely solid
  38. The asthenosphere:
    1. lies beneath the lithosphere
    2. is composed primarily of peridotite
    3. behaves plastically and flows slowly
    4. is the zone over which plates move
    5. all of these
  39. The layer between the core and the crust is the:
    1. mantle
    2. sial
    3. lithosphere
    4. innersphere
    5. sima
  40. The magnetic field is probably generated by:
    1. the tilt of the Earth's rotational axis
    2. the solar wind
    3. fluid movements in the outer core
    4. deformation of the asthenosphere
    5. a large deposit of magnetite at the North Pole
  41. Which of the following usually causes the greatest amount of damage and loss of life?
    1. fire
    2. building collapse
    3. tsunami
    4. landslides
    5. ground shaking
  42. A tsunami is a:
    1. measure of the energy released by an earthquake
    2. seismic sea wave
    3. precursor to an earthquake
    4. locked portion of a fault
    5. seismic gap
  43. The fastest type of seismic waves are:
    1. P waves
    2. Surface waves
    3. S waves
    4. tsunami
  44. An epicenter is:
    1. the location where rupture begins
    2. the point on the Earth's surface vertically above the focus
    3. the same as the hypocenter
    4. the location where energy is released
    5. none of these
  45. When seismic waves travel through materials having different properties, their direction of travel changes. This phenomenon is wave:
    1. elasticity
    2. deflection
    3. energy dissipation
    4. reflection
    5. refraction
  46. A major seismic discontinuity at a depth of 2,900 km is the:
    1. core-mantle boundary
    2. oceanic crust-continental crust boundary
    3. Moho
    4. inner core-outer core boundary
    5. lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary
  47. A qualitative assessment of the kinds of damage done by an earthquake is expressed by:
    1. seismicity
    2. intensity
    3. dilatancy
    4. none of these
    5. magnitude
  48. How much more energy is released by a magnitude 5 earthquake than by one of the magnitude 2?
    1. 2.5 times
    2. 1,000 times
    3. 3 times
    4. 27,000 times
    5. 30 times
  49. A graben is a:
    1. fold with a horizontal axial plane
    2. type of reverse fault with a very low dip
    3. fracture along which no movement has occurred
    4. down-dropped block bounded by normal faults
    5. type of structure resulting from compression
  50. Strike-slip faults:
    1. are low-angle reverse faults
    2. have mainly vertical displacement
    3. have mainly horizontal movement
    4. are faults on which no movement has yet occurred
    5. are characterized by uplift of the footwall block
  51. The range-bounding faults in the Basin and Range Province of the western United States are _____ faults.
    1. normal
    2. strike-slip
    3. reverse
    4. oblique-slip
    5. thrust
  52. The seismic discontinuity at the base of the crust is the:
    1. magnetic anomaly
    2. high-velocity
    3. Moho
    4. transition zone
    5. geothermal gradient
  53. Seismic waves arrive in what order?
    1. P, S, Surface
    2. Surface, S, P
    3. S, P, Surface
    4. S, Surface, P
    5. Surface, P, S

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Created 3 January 1997, Last Update 24 Feb 2011