Steven Dutch, Natural and Applied Sciences, University of Wisconsin - Green Bay
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  1. The property of a magma that determines whether or not it has high viscosity:
    1. density
    2. silica content
    3. color
    4. iron content
    5. water content
  2. This mineral tends to form first in Bowen's Series:
    1. quartz
    2. plagioclase
    3. olivine
    4. muscovite
    5. biotite
  3. Most stratovolcanoes tend to erupt:
    1. rhyolite
    2. basalt
    3. andesite
    4. gabbro
    5. obsidian
  4. After steam, the most abundant component of volcanic gases:
    1. argon
    2. carbon dioxide
    3. hydrogen sulfide
    4. sulfur dioxide
    5. nitrogen
  5. These lavas erupt coolest:
    1. pumice
    2. basalt
    3. andesite
    4. rhyolite
  6. A volcano that has not erupted in 1000 years is best described as:
    1. active
    2. dormant
    3. extinct
  7. Most batholiths are made of:
    1. granite
    2. basalt
    3. dunite
    4. gabbro
    5. rhyolite
  8. The property of a magma that determines whether or not it flows easily:
    1. density
    2. viscosity
    3. color
    4. iron content
  9. This mineral tends to form last in Bowen's Series:
    1. quartz
    2. plagioclase
    3. olivine
    4. muscovite
    5. biotite
  10. Shield volcanoes tend to erupt:
    1. rhyolite
    2. basalt
    3. andesite
    4. gabbro
    5. obsidian
  11. These lavas erupt hottest:
    1. pumice
    2. basalt
    3. andesite
    4. rhyolite
  12. During its lifetime, a volcano may:
    1. collapse to form a caldera
    2. collapse in a catastrophic landslide
    3. erode away to leave a volcanic neck
    4. any of the above
  13. A volcano that has not erupted in 1000 years is extinct. True or False:
    1. True
    2. False
  14. Source of the water that forms volcanic mudflows:
    1. melting of the volcano's snow or ice cap
    2. condensation of water vapor from the eruption cloud
    3. both a and b
    4. neither a nor b
  15. The least dangerous hazard to human life from volcanoes:
    1. lava flows
    2. nuees ardentes
    3. mudflows
  16. Mount St. Helens, prior to its eruption in 1980 was an excellent example of:
    1. a shield volcano
    2. a dormant volcano
    3. an extinct volcano
    4. an active volcano
    5. none of these
  17. The steepness of slopes on a volcanic mountain is determined primarily by:
    1. the relative amounts of pyroclastic debris and lava erupted from the volcanic vent
    2. the initial temperature of the lava
    3. the amount of rainfall in the area
    4. the force with which the magma is pushed upward
    5. none of these
  18. A fiery cloud of hot gases and pyroclastic debris which flows down the side of a volcano is called:
    1. a cinder avalanche
    2. a nuee ardente or pyroclastic flow
    3. clastic flow
    4. theromoclastic avalanche
    5. none of these
  19. The steep-walled structure formed by the collapse of the top of a volcanic mountain into an underlying magma chamber is called:
    1. a crater
    2. a fissure
    3. a caldera
    4. a vent
    5. none of these
  20. The Columbia Plateau in the northwestern U.S. is an excellent example of:
    1. an eroded shield volcano
    2. deposits of flood basalts
    3. extensive deposits of pyroclastic debris
    4. a chain of composite volcanoes
    5. none of these
  21. Two types of gases, other than steam, that are the most abundant in volcanic emissions are:
    1. carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide
    2. carbon dioxide and nitrogen
    3. hydrogen and helium
    4. none of these
    5. carbon monoxide and argon
  22. Which of these processes can destroy a stratovolcano:
    1. landslide
    2. gradual erosion
    3. caldera collapse
    4. all of the above
  23. When molten rock reaches the surface, it's called:
    1. lava
    2. slag
    3. magma
    4. granite
  24. Molten rock which does not reach the surface is called:
    1. volcanic ash
    2. magma
    3. basalt
    4. lava
  25. Magma forms
    1. in the core of the earth
    2. 1000 miles below the surface
    3. a mile below the surface
    4. about 50 miles below the surface
  26. How to tell a dike from a sill
    1. a dike cuts across structures but a sill is parallel to them
    2. dikes are mostly of gabbro, sills are diorite
    3. sills are usually associated with batholiths
    4. all of the above
  27. According to Bowen's Series:
    1. quartz forms last
    2. quartz and olivine form together
    3. quartz forms before biotite
    4. quartz forms first
  28. The viscosity of magma is primarily controlled by:
    1. temperature
    2. texture
    3. silica content
    4. elevation
    5. pressure
  29. An example of a concordant pluton having a tabular geometry is a:
    1. sill
    2. lava flow
    3. batholith
    4. dike
    5. volcanic neck
  30. Basalt plateaus form as a result of:
    1. repeated eruptions of cinder cones
    2. widespread ash falls
    3. accumulation of thick layers of pyroclastic materials
    4. the origin of lahars on composite volcanoes
    5. eruptions of fluid lava from long fissures
  31. One other Cascade Range volcano besides Mount St. Helens has erupted since 1900. It is:
    1. Mount Hood, Oregon
    2. Mount Adams, Washington
    3. Mount Lassen, California
    4. Mount Mazama, Oregon
    5. Mount Garibaldi, British Columbia
  32. Volcanic or extrusive igneous rocks form by the cooling and crystallization of lava flows and the
    1. crystallization of magma beneath the surface
    2. consolidation of pyroclastic materials
    3. reaction of volcanic gases with the atmosphere
    4. heating of sedimentary rocks beneath lava flows
    5. all of these
  33. Which is associated with basaltic magma?
    1. shield volcanoes
    2. explosive eruptions
    3. nuees ardentes
    4. batholiths
  34. Much of the upper part of the oceanic crust is composed of interconnected bulbous masses of igneous rock called:
    1. pillow lava
    2. parasitic cones
    3. lapilli
    4. blocks
    5. pyroclastic material
  35. Shield volcanoes have low slopes because they are composed of:
    1. mostly pyroclastic layers
    2. felsic magma
    3. lahars and viscous lava flows
    4. pillow lavas
    5. fluid mafic lava flows
  36. Which is most dangerous to humans:
    1. nuee ardente or pyroclastic flow
    2. pahoehoe
    3. lava flows
    4. pillow lava
    5. volcanic bombs
  37. A lava flow with a surface of jagged blocks is termed:
    1. lapilli
    2. obsidian
    3. vesicular
    4. pyroclastic sheet deposit
    5. aa
  38. Most calderas form by:
    1. summit collapse
    2. forceful injection
    3. explosions
    4. erosion of lava domes
    5. fissure eruptions
  39. What are the two major kinds of igneous rocks:
    1. volcanic and eruptive
    2. volcanic and plutonic
    3. granitic and plutonic
    4. sills and lava
    5. dikes and batholiths
  40. Crater Lake in Oregon is an excellent example of a:
    1. caldera
    2. basalt plateau
    3. cinder cone
    4. lava dome
    5. shield volcano
  41. The largest volcano in the world (height, volume, or diameter) is:
    1. Mount St. Helens, Washington
    2. Mount Vesuvius, Italy
    3. Mount Etna, Sicily
    4. Mauna Loa, Hawaii
    5. Fujiyama, Japan
  42. Why is silica the major component of magma:
    1. it melts at low temperatures
    2. it retains heat well
    3. it dissolves other rocks
    4. it is so abundant
  43. Which of the following is a concordant pluton:
    1. sill
    2. dike
    3. stock
    4. batholith
    5. volcanic neck
  44. Batholiths are composed mostly of what type of rock:
    1. granitic
    2. andesite
    3. gabbro
    4. periodotite
    5. basalt
  45. Most active volcanoes are in:
    1. the Mediterranean belt
    2. the circum-Pacific belt
    3. the Hawaiian Islands
    4. the oceanic ridge belt
    5. Iceland
  46. One of history's best-known volcanic eruptions was the eruption that destroyed Pompeii in 79 A.D. How was Pompeii destroyed:
    1. It was buried by lava flows.
    2. It was buried by mudflows.
    3. It was swept away by a volcanic sea wave.
    4. It was buried by ash, which later hardened into rock.
  47. Vesuvius is one of a chain of volcanoes along the southern coast of Italy, marking a:
    1. mid-ocean ridge.
    2. subduction zone.
    3. flood basalt province.
    4. rift valley.
  48. For every lava flow that erupts from a volcano, what quantity of molten rock hardens beneath the surface?
    1. only a few per cent
    2. about the same
    3. two or three times as much
    4. many times as much
  49. When mantle material melts, it usually forms magma of what composition?
    1. basalt
    2. rhyolite
    3. andesite
    4. dunite
  50. Volcanoes on oceanic crust erupt mostly magma of what composition?
    1. basalt
    2. rhyolite
    3. andesite
    4. dunite
  51. As subduction zones on continents evolve, later magmas become progressively ______.
    1. richer in iron.
    2. poorer in silica.
    3. richer in magnesium.
    4. richer in silica.
  52. The largest intrusions in area and volume are:
    1. stocks.
    2. batholiths.
    3. laccoliths.
    4. lopoliths.
  53. The islands of Hawaii are:
    1. shield volcanoes
    2. stratovolcanoes
    3. plug domes
    4. fissure flows
  54. Which of the following is not an important flood basalt area:
    1. Oregon and Washington
    2. large areas in India
    3. parts of Siberia
    4. central Australia
  55. Flood basalts are usually related to:
    1. subduction zones.
    2. hot spots or rifts.
    3. batholiths.
    4. mountain ranges
  56. The most commonest intermediate volcanic rock is:
    1. andesite.
    2. basalt
    3. rhyolite
    4. diorite
  57. Stratovolcanoes are composed of :
    1. rhyolite flows.
    2. alternating layers of lava, mudflow deposits, and pyroclastic debris.
    3. mudflows and volcanic ash.
    4. loose pyroclastic debris.
  58. Why is lava, in itself, a comparatively minor safety hazard:
    1. Lava flows usually move slowly, and there is usually enough advance warning to permit escape.
    2. Lava hardens as it moves.
    3. both a. and b
    4. none of the above
  59. Most andesite stratovolcanoes occur at:
    1. continental rifts
    2. hot spots.
    3. subduction zones.
    4. oceanic rifts.
  60. Shield volcanoes are the largest of all volcanoes by what measures:
    1. height
    2. volume
    3. mass
    4. diameter
    5. all of the above
  61. The property of magma that governs the type of volcano built and the violence of its eruptions is:
    1. density
    2. temperature
    3. depth of origin
    4. viscosity
  62. Which of the following materials has the highest viscosity?
    1. hot asphalt
    2. honey
    3. milk
    4. water
  63. Which of the following magmas has the highest viscosity?
    1. rhyolite
    2. basalt
    3. andesite
    4. diorite
  64. Which of the following magmas is most likely to build a shield volcano?
    1. rhyolite
    2. basalt
    3. andesite
    4. diorite
  65. Which is the least likely to cause casualties during a volcanic eruption?
    1. mudflows
    2. pyroclastic flows
    3. fast-moving lava flows that arrive without warning
    4. building collapse from ash falls
  66. Volcanic ash is:
    1. rock dust ejected by the volcano.
    2. remains of materials burned by hot lava.
    3. minerals that condense from volcanic gases.
    4. loose soil picked up by the wind after eruptions.
  67. Which of the following magmas is most likely to be associated with violent eruptions?
    1. rhyolite
    2. basalt
    3. andesite
    4. diorite
  68. The process by which intrusions "nibble" their way upward by breaking off pieces of overlying rock is called:
    1. stoping.
    2. forceful injection.
    3. injection fracturing
    4. undermining.
  69. Which of the following magmas has the lowest viscosity?
    1. rhyolite
    2. basalt
    3. andesite
    4. diorite
  70. Which of the following magmas is most likely to be associated with a pyroclastic flow?
    1. rhyolite
    2. basalt
    3. andesite
    4. diorite
  71. All the following properties of volcanoes and eruptions tend to be associated, except one. The property that does not belong in this list is:
    1. non-violent eruptions.
    2. pyroclastic flows.
    3. shield volcanoes.
    4. fluid lavas with low viscosity.
  72. On the atomic scale, the property that governs magma viscosity, type of volcano formed, and eruptive violence is:
    1. average size of ions.
    2. average charge of ions.
    3. linkage of silica tetrahedra.
    4. ratio of large and small ions.
  73. Mount Vesuvius, Mount Fuji, Mount Rainier, and most of the other well-known volcanoes of the world are :
    1. cinder cones.
    2. shield volcanoes.
    3. stratovolcanoes.
    4. flood basalts.
  74. Sometimes, rhyolite lava emerges from a new vent and oozes out to form a:
    1. fissure eruption.
    2. plug dome
    3. cinder cone
    4. pyroclastic flow
  75. Before the advent of rapid communication and transportation for relief efforts, probably the greatest danger from volcanoes was:
    1. lava flows that struck without warning.
    2. weather disturbances caused by distant eruptions
    3. inability to evacuate people in danger
    4. starvation due to environmental disruption
  76. Most of the gas erupted by a volcano is ordinary steam, and most of the remainder is
    1. hydrogen chloride
    2. hydrogen sulfide
    3. carbon dioxide.
    4. radon
  77. The worst volcanic gas disaster known occurred in the African nation of Cameroon in 1986 It was:
    1. an outburst of carbon dioxide that suffocated many people.
    2. a sudden, explosive release of hot gases.
    3. emission of highly toxic hydrogen sulfide.
    4. emission of toxic gases that poisoned crops.
  78. The vents of many older volcanoes become so plugged with hardened lava that the vent may be permanently relocated and a new cone built on the flanks of the old one. Such a cone is called:
    1. a cinder cone
    2. a flank cone
    3. a parasitic cone.
    4. a plug dome
  79. If the magma pressure drops beneath a volcano, the volcano may subside to form a basin called a:
    1. rift valley.
    2. deflation basin.
    3. crater.
    4. caldera.
  80. A caldera is different from a volcanic crater in what way:
    1. A crater is usually much larger than a caldera.
    2. A caldera forms by explosion but a crater forms by subsidence.
    3. A caldera forms by subsidence but a crater forms by explosion.
    4. A caldera forms by erosion but a crater forms by explosion.
  81. Crater Lake in Oregon actually fills a:
    1. rift basin
    2. caldera
    3. sinkhole
    4. deflation basin.
  82. When volcanoes collapse in the sea, the results are often especially violent. Two of the most violent such eruptions were:
    1. Krakatoa and Thera.
    2. Vesuvius and Etna.
    3. Krakatoa and Mauna Loa.
    4. Surtsey and Paricutin.
  83. A former volcano in Oregon, Mount Mazama, is now the site of:
    1. Mount Hood
    2. Mount St. Helens
    3. Mount Shasta
    4. Crater Lake
  84. Yellowstone National Park is an example of:
    1. a hot spot on a continent.
    2. a collapsed magma chamber.
    3. a flood basalt province.
    4. both a. and b.
    5. all of the above
  85. Stratovolcanoes collapse because:
    1. they are weakly-cemented piles of lava flows, ash layers and mudflow deposits.
    2. erosion weakens the volcano and causes it to collapse.
    3. they accumulate glaciers whose weight collapses the volcano
  86. The type of volcano that generally has the shortest active lifespan:
    1. cinder cones
    2. shield volcanoes
    3. stratovolcanoes
    4. plug domes
  87. A volcano is considered extinct if:
    1. it has not erupted in 100 years.
    2. it has not erupted in 1,000 years.
    3. it has not erupted in 10,000 years.
    4. there is no sure way to determine if a volcano is extinct.
  88. The rock invaded by an intrusion is called:
    1. sedimentary rock.
    2. metamorphic rock
    3. country rock.
    4. background rock.
  89. The general term for a non-tabular intrusion is a:
    1. stock.
    2. pluton.
    3. dike.
    4. batholith
  90. Stratovolcanoes collapse because:
    1. erosion weakens the volcano and causes it to collapse.
    2. acidic gases and solutions weaken the volcano from within.
    3. they accumulate glaciers whose weight collapses the volcano
  91. Very large batholiths like the Sierra Nevada Batholith are:
    1. made up of dozens or even hundreds of smaller intrusions.
    2. mostly of gabbro.
    3. only a kilometer of so thick.
    4. uniform masses of rock that formed from a single vast magma body.
  92. Geophysical methods show that most batholiths are:
    1. spherical in shape.
    2. 50 kilometers or more thick.
    3. made of dunite at great depths.
    4. lens-like masses only a few kilometers thick.
  93. Although volcanic ash is most widely mentioned in news reports, the most significant global effects of volcanic eruptions are actually produced by:
    1. heat from lava flows
    2. melting of glaciers during eruptions
    3. destruction of vegetation
    4. aerosols.
  94. The best-documented global cooling by a volcanic eruption occurred after the eruption of:
    1. Vesuvius in 79 A. D.
    2. Krakatoa in 1883.
    3. the Indonesian volcano Tambora in 1815.
    4. Mount Katmai in 1912.
  95. Flood basalts might have very significant global effects because:
    1. they release so much heat.
    2. they cover vast areas with dark rocks, trapping solar heat.
    3. they melt polar glaciers.
    4. the sulfur content of basaltic lava is about ten times that of rhyolite.
  96. Volcanic aerosols are made up of:
    1. fine rock powder
    2. tiny droplets of sulfuric acid
    3. tiny droplets of water vapor
    4. microscopic ice crystals.
  97. Mount Pelee caused great loss of life during its 1902 eruption because of a:
    1. pyroclastic flow.
    2. lava flow.
    3. mudflow
    4. heavy ash fall that collapsed buildings.
  98. Nevado Ruiz erupted in 1985 and killed 20,000 people because of:
    1. pyroclastic flow.
    2. lava flow.
    3. mudflow
    4. heavy ash fall that collapsed buildings.

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Created 30 Dec 1996, Last Update 24 February 2011

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