Weather and Climate

Steven Dutch, Natural and Applied Sciences, University of Wisconsin - Green Bay
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  1. An mP air mass is:
    1. dry and cold
    2. humid and warm
    3. humid and cold
    4. none of these
    5. dry and warm
  2. In a cP air mass, the c stands for:
    1. continental
    2. cold
    3. circulating
    4. Coriolis
    5. convecting
  3. Which of these is true of the Coriolis force?
    1. It deflects winds in the Northern Hemisphere to the left
    2. It is strongest right on the equator
    3. It affects how water drains out of a sink
    4. It affects only air, but has no effect on ocean currents
    5. It is due to the earth being spherical and rotating
  4. A steep pressure gradient:
    1. would be depicted by widely spaced isobars
    2. produces strong winds
    3. is only possible in the tropics
    4. produces light winds
    5. produces snow
  5. Fifty percent of the gases making up the atmosphere are found below:
    1. 10 miles (16.2 km)
    2. 3 1/2 miles (5.6 km)
    3. 6 1/2 miles (10.4 km)
    4. 8 miles (12.8 km)
  6. Which of these instruments is used to measure air pressure?
    1. hygrometer
    2. anemometer
    3. Doppler radar
    4. barometer
    5. psychrometer
  7. Which of the following is considered to be a boundary between two different air masses?
    1. warm front
    2. occluded front
    3. cold front
    4. stationary front
    5. all of these
  8. A parcel of dry air has a temperature of 0oC as it crosses a mountain range at 3000 meters. If it descends, what will its temperature be when it reaches sea level?
    1. 15oC
    2. 40oC
    3. 30oC
    4. -10oC
    5. 0o
  9. Most of the United States is situated in which zone of prevailing winds?
    1. trade winds
    2. doldrums
    3. subpolar easterlies
    4. horse latitudes
    5. westerlies
  10. Another name for the subtropical high is:
    1. trade winds
    2. doldrums
    3. subpolar easterlies
    4. horse latitudes
    5. westerlies
  11. When an active cold front overtakes a warm front:
    1. the fronts cancel one another out
    2. cloud formation ceases
    3. an occluded front forms
    4. a stationary front is created
    5. a hurricane develops
  12. The triatomic form of oxygen (O3) is known as:
    1. argon
    2. ozone
    3. thermopause
    4. molecular oxygen
    5. chlorofluorocarbon
  13. Ozone filters out most of the _____ radiation in sunlight.
    1. infrared
    2. microwave
    3. gamma
    4. radio
    5. ultraviolet
  14. Under what circumstances could the relative humidity exceed 100 % without producing condensation in the air?
    1. the dew point is higher than the air temperature
    2. the air is perfectly dry
    3. the water vapor is composed of "heavy" water
    4. there are no condensation nuclei
    5. there are too many ions in the air
  15. Widely spaced isobars indicate:
    1. high winds
    2. variable winds
    3. light winds
    4. winds oriented north to south
    5. cyclonic winds
  16. Which element is most responsible for depleting the ozone layer?
    1. chlorine
    2. sulfur
    3. sodium
    4. radon
    5. helium
  17. New York City has its greatest length of daylight.
    1. June 21
    2. December 21
    3. March 21
    4. July 4
    5. September 21
  18. The normal lapse rate of average temperature decrease for dry air in the troposphere is _____ for each kilometer of altitude increase.
    1. 5oC
    2. 0oC
    3. 15oC
    4. 10oC
    5. -5oC
  19. There is disagreement about every aspect of global warming except one. Which is the one point everyone agrees?
    1. Accuracy of the computer models
    2. Whether the change is man-made or natural
    3. Carbon dioxide has increased in the last few centuries
    4. The role of clouds in moderating global warming
    5. Whether the change will be harmful or beneficial
  20. The two most important heat absorbing gases in the lower atmosphere are:
    1. oxygen and nitrogen
    2. water vapor and carbon dioxide
    3. argon and oxygen
    4. ozone and chlorofluorocarbon
    5. none of the above
  21. The term ____ is used to describe the conversion of a solid directly to a gas, without passing through the liquid state.
    1. evaporation
    2. melting
    3. sublimation
    4. deposition
    5. condensation
  22. Fast moving currents of air found near the top of the troposphere are called:
    1. wind trains
    2. jet streams
    3. mesocyclones
    4. El Nino
    5. chinooks
  23. Which of the following statements is not true of tornadoes?
    1. occur most frequently in the spring if the year
    2. usually occur along the warm front of a midlatitude air mass
    3. most common in the Midwest and Great Plains
    4. associated with cumulonimbus clouds
    5. generally move form the southwest toward the northeast
  24. Tornadoes are most frequent in the U.S. during the:
    1. January-March period
    2. April-June period
    3. October-December period
    4. month of September
    5. July-August period
  25. The storage of heat in the lower layer of the atmosphere produced by certain heat-absorbing gases is called the:
    1. adiabatic effect
    2. photon effect
    3. greenhouse effect
    4. photosynthesis effect
    5. grey-body effect
  26. Evaporating a gram of water requires how many calories?.
    1. 600
    2. 100
    3. 14,000
    4. 35
    5. 7,500
  27. The process of converting a liquid to a vapor is termed:
    1. evaporation
    2. melting
    3. sublimation
    4. deposition
    5. condensation
  28. In the northern hemisphere, the winds associated with a low pressure system (cyclone) blow:
    1. clockwise toward the center
    2. counterclockwise toward the center
    3. clockwise outward from the center
    4. counterclockwise outward from the center
  29. In the northern hemisphere, winds associated with a high pressure system blow:
    1. clockwise toward the center
    2. counterclockwise toward the center
    3. clockwise outward from the center
    4. counterclockwise outward from the center
  30. This air mass is the source of much of the moisture for precipitation in the central and eastern United States.
    1. mT
    2. cT
    3. cP
    4. none of these
    5. mP
  31. Why doesn't volcanic HCl break down the ozone layer as much as artificial chlorine chemicals?
    1. There is less of it
    2. HCl in the atmosphere combines with other chemicals and becomes inert
    3. It has different isotopes of chlorine
    4. Greenpeace is faking the data
    5. The chlorine is more tightly bonded and less available for reacting
  32. Since the start of the Industrial Revolution, the atmospheric content of carbon dioxide has:
    1. remained about the same
    2. doubled
    3. declined
    4. increased five times
    5. increased ten times
  33. On this date the sun rises at the South Pole.
    1. June 21
    2. December 21
    3. March 21
    4. July 4
    5. September 21
  34. The spring equinox in the Northern Hemisphere.
    1. June 21
    2. December 21
    3. March 21
    4. February 14
    5. September 21
  35. The North Pole has a higher noon sun angle than New York City on this date.
    1. June 21
    2. December 21
    3. March 21
    4. Never
    5. September 21
  36. If the maximum temperature for a particular day is 26oC and the minimum temperature is 14oC, the daily range would be:
    1. 40oC
    2. 20oC
    3. 12oC
    4. 13oC
    5. the daily range cannot be determined with the data provided
  37. Early in January the earth is closer to the sun than at any other time of year. This position is termed:
    1. albedo
    2. aphelion
    3. perihelion
    4. equinox
    5. revolution
  38. On the average, how much of the sun's energy that is intercepted by the earth is reflected back to space?
    1. 10%
    2. 40%
    3. 20%
    4. 50%
    5. 30%
  39. The earth receives energy from the sun in this way.
    1. conduction
    2. convection
    3. radiation
    4. all of the above (a, b, and c)
    5. none of the above
  40. The wavelengths emitted by the earth are:
    1. longer than those emitted by the sun
    2. shorter than those emitted by the sun
    3. about the same as those emitted by the sun
    4. none of these
  41. The longest wavelengths on the electromagnetic spectrum are:
    1. gamma
    2. radio
    3. ultraviolet
    4. infrared
  42. The dew point is the temperature at which:
    1. water in the liquid state changes to vapor
    2. hailstones are formed
    3. water vapor condenses to a liquid
    4. cumulus clouds change to cumulonimbus clouds
    5. none of these
  43. The most important process of cloud formation in the atmosphere is:
    1. cooling by compression of air
    2. cooling by release of latent heat of vaporization
    3. cooling by expansion of air
    4. radiation cooling
    5. cooling by contract with a cold surface
  44. The subpolar low (polar front) is:
    1. a zone where the trade winds meet
    2. the forward edge of the antarctic ice cap
    3. a zone where the polar easterlies and the westerlies converge
    4. the boundary between frozen and liquid ocean
  45. On a weather map, ___ fronts are shown by a line with semicircles extending from one side.
    1. warm
    2. occluded
    3. cold
    4. stationary
  46. If an observer sees cirrus clouds, followed later by cirrostratus, and than altostratus, he or she is witnessing the approach of a ____ front.
    1. warm
    2. stationary
    3. cold
    4. gradual
  47. The summer solstice in the Northern Hemisphere occurs on this date.
    1. June 21
    2. December 21
    3. March 21
    4. none of the above
    5. September 21
  48. When a hurricane moves onto land, it rapidly loses its punch, that is, the storm declines in intensity. Which of the factors listed below contribute to this loss of punch?
    1. friction
    2. lack of warm, moist air
    3. heating from below by the land surface
    4. both a and b
    5. both b and c
  49. The eye of a hurricane:
    1. is the portion with the highest wind speeds
    2. is warmer than the rest of the storm
    3. is a figment of man's imagination
    4. is a small area of relative calm
  50. Hurricanes generally are:
    1. larger than tornadoes
    2. smaller than midlatitude cyclones
    3. areas of heavy rainfall and strong winds
    4. most common in late summer
    5. all of these
  51. Thunder and lightning are most likely to be associated with these clouds:
    1. cirrostratus
    2. cirrus
    3. cumulonimbus
    4. nimbostratus
    5. altostratus
  52. This cloud type is typical of the middle height range:
    1. cirrostratus
    2. cirrus
    3. cumulonimbus
    4. nimbostratus
    5. altostratus
  53. If  fair weather is approaching, the pressure tendency would probably be:
    1. steady
    2. falling
    3. rising
    4. pressure tendency has nothing to do with forecasting good or bad weather
  54. If stormy weather is approaching, the pressure tendency would probably be:
    1. steady
    2. falling
    3. rising
    4. pressure tendency has nothing to do with forecasting good or bad weather
  55. When an area is experiencing several consecutive days of rather constant fair weather, it is experiencing:
    1. warm-front weather
    2. cold-front weather
    3. high-pressure weather
    4. occluded front weather
    5. low-pressure weather
  56. An air mass from the Gulf of Mexico is called:
    1. cP
    2. cT
    3. mP
    4. mT
  57. A cT air mass is:
    1. cold and dry
    2. warm and humid
    3. cold and humid
    4. none of these
    5. warm and dry
  58. Air may best be described as:
    1. an element
    2. a compound
    3. a mixture
    4. one of four basic substances that composes all things
    5. none of these
  59. Which one of the following is the most abundant gas in the atmosphere?
    1. oxygen
    2. nitrogen
    3. argon
    4. hydrogen
    5. carbon dioxide
  60. Lines on a weather map connecting places of equal air pressure are termed:
    1. isovectors
    2. isotherms
    3. isobars
    4. isopressure
    5. isogrids
  61. Closely spaced isobars indicate:
    1. high winds
    2. variable winds
    3. light winds
    4. winds oriented north to south
    5. cyclonic winds
  62. On a weather map, _____ fronts are shown by a line with triangular points on one side.
    1. warm
    2. occluded
    3. cold
    4. stationary
  63. Ozone is concentrated in the:
    1. troposphere
    2. thermosphere
    3. stratosphere
    4. ionosphere
    5. mesosphere
  64. The lowest layer of the atmosphere is the:
    1. troposphere
    2. stratosphere
    3. thermosphere
    4. ionosphere
    5. mesosphere
  65. Practically all clouds and storms occur in this layer of the atmosphere:
    1. troposphere
    2. stratosphere
    3. thermosphere
    4. ionosphere
    5. mesosphere
  66. The cloud form that is best described as low altitude sheets or layers that cover much or all of the sky is termed:
    1. cumulus
    2. alto
    3. cirrus
    4. nimbo
    5. stratus
  67. The cloud form that consists of globular cloud masses that take on a billowy or cauliflower-like structure is called:
    1. cumulus
    2. alto
    3. cirrus
    4. nimbo
    5. stratus
  68. This term is used to describe clouds found in the middle height range:
    1. cumulus
    2. alto
    3. cirrus
    4. nimbo
    5. stratus
  69. In the southern hemisphere, the winds associated with a low pressure system blow:
    1. clockwise toward the center
    2. counterclockwise toward the center
    3. clockwise outward from the center
    4. counterclockwise outward from the center
  70. As you face the same direction a hurricane is moving, the most dangerous part of the storm is:
    1. front center
    2. left front
    3. right front
    4. left rear
    5. right rear
  71. The reason one particular part of a hurricane is most dangerous is:
    1. The velocity of the storm is added to the wind velocity
    2. That part of the storm stays over water longest
    3. That part of the storm has dangerously low pressure
    4. That part of the storm has the heaviest rain
    5. The velocity of the storm is subtracted from the wind velocity.
  72. The ingredients in smog are:
    1. lightning, nitrogen and water vapor
    2. ultraviolet, nitrogen, hydrocarbons
    3. ozone and fluorocarbons
    4. nitrogen, sulfur and infrared
    5. water vapor, carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide
  73. Rainbows, halos and glories are produced by:
    1. refraction of light
    2. absorption of light
    3. scattering of light
    4. colored impurities in the clouds

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Created 2 December 2003, Last Update 24 February 2011

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