Environmental Science 102, sec. 3
Study Concepts/Terms Exam II, 2006
updated 3/7/06 (text in italics updated)

End of Chapt 4.

Bio Community Properties: abundance and diversity

Ecosystem stability: how related to resilience and inertia? Examples of different types.

Primary vs. secondary ecological succession: how similar? how different? Climax community.

Human impacts on succession and ecosystems

Exotic Species

Chapt 6.

Population growth patterns: exponential vs. arithmetic growth

J vs. S curves

Do real populations follow S curves? Why or Why not?

Environmental resistance

Carry capacity: why commonly exceeded?

growth rates (r = b - d)

rule of 70 (doubling time)

Malthusian growth strategist  (r adapted) vs. logistic strategists (K adapted): similarities? Differences?

Natality, migration, and mortality, life expectancy: role in population growth

Population age structures: significance of population momentum

Survivorship curves

Density-independent vs. density dependent factors: similarities and differences; examples.

Conservation Biology: importance of genetic diversity

Chapter 7: Human Populations

Population History: reasons for rapid growth in recent past

Birth rate, death rate, Infant mortality, life expectancy

Total fertility rate: what factors affect?

Total vs. natural growth rate: how differ? How the same?

Relative rates of growth: MDC vs. LDC

Demographics of African countries relative to MDCs and LDCs

age structures

Population momentum

Significance of “Future belongs to our youth” with respect to population growth

Doubling time

Demographic transition: (ie., relationship between birth and death rates over time and economic development; stages)

Importance of the status of women (how has population debate changed?)

Relative population growth situations in Mexico, Kenya, India, China vs. Italy and U.S. (video).  "Bottle neck" and "aftershock"....

Environmental, natural resource, and social impacts of population growth.

 Chapter 9: Food and Soil Resources; Sustainable Ag

Issues related to feeding 10 billion people

Major food crops

Human carrying capacity of Earth vs. diet (consequences of eating significant amounts of meat; energy conversion)

1st Green Revolution (problems, etc.)

2nd Green Revolution (where? what crops?)

Blue Revolution (what is it? benefits and problems)

Trends in per capita cropland, wild fisheries, grain

Soil functions, composition, texture

Importance of humus

Soil Horizons

Why soils differ, what factors are important?

Relative rate of soil development

Mollisol, Alfisol, Oxisol; dominant soils in Wisconsin

Examples of soil degradation

Soil erosion (T= tolerable soil loss rate): causes, consequences, relative rates

Soil conservation  

Ag inputs (e.g. water) and impacts on resources

Cropland vs. population

Sustainable agriculture (also chapter 10; video)

Alternatives to pesticides


Improved soil management practices; key strategies to reducing erosion?  

Chapter 8: Environmental Health and Toxicology

Hazardous vs. toxic


Bioaccumulation, biomagnification


Exposure factors; dose, acute vs. chronic

What factors influence sensitivity of organisms to toxins?

Basic types of health responses to toxins/pollutants

Dose - response


Why is it difficult to predict chronic effects?

Risk and risk policy: important factors to consider  

Chapter 10: Pesticides

Characteristics of the perfect pesticide

Endocrine disrupters (see pages 202 and 204)

Pesticide resistance

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