††††††††††††††† (also see Key Concepts on page 318 of text 8 th ed.)
1. Components of the atmosphere: gases and aerosols
2. Significance of CO2
3. Thermal structure of atmosphere, Troposphere vs. stratosphere: how differ?
4. Electromagnetic spectrum Ė short wave vs. long wave; importance for life
5. Interactions of solar radiation with atmosphere and Earth's surface
6. Solar radiation vs. infrared radiation: how similar? how differ?
7. Radiational heating vs. radiational cooling
8. Greenhouse effect: causes and implications
9. Heat balance: vertical (earth surface vs. atmosphere) and latitudinal (horizontal) variations
10. Sensible heat† (convection) vs. latent heat (change state of water) transport: similarities? Differences?
11. Convectional currents, warm fronts, and cold fronts: differences?
12. Differential heating and atmospheric circulation
13. Steering winds: jet streams
14. El Nino: what is it?† Where does it occur? Impacts?
15. How do current climate trends relate to past trends?
16. "Cultural" greenhouse effect and gases
17. Global Climate Change: causes and implications
18. Reducing greenhouse gases
19. Define: Air pollution
20. Primary and secondary air pollutants
21. Types of Air pollutants and sources
22. Impacts of Air pollution
23. Air-pollution potential and distribution: weather (thermal inversions, dry vs. rainy, long-range transport)
24. Acid Deposition: how forms and nature of impact?
25. Thinning of Ozone Shield: evidence, causes, progress
26. Air quality standards,
27. Air quality control (prevention vs. cleanup)
28. Current conditions and future prospects
30. Relative humidity:† how determined? significance?
31. How is saturation actually achieved?
32. Rain shadow
33. How is expansional cooling achieved? (4 ways)
34. Water Cycle: major pathways (evaporation, condensation, precipitation, infiltration, runoff, groundwater flow)
35. Global water budget? Compare and contrast oceans and continents
36. Relative size and importance of global reservoirs of the water cycle
38. Groundwater flow, water table, recharge, aquifers
39. Characteristics of a good aquifer or poor aquifer
40. Groundwater mining and its consequences; cone of depression
42. Power of Water video handout. (tentative)
43. Watershed/drainage basin
44. Water use and conservation
45. What is meant by water quality?
46. Drainage basin activities: how each affects water quality
47. Point vs. nonpoint sources of water pollution
48. Waterborne pathogens:† sources? how controlled?
49. Coliform bacteria:† index of what? significance?
50. Oxygen-demanding wastes (BOD); examples and sources
51. Importance and source of dissolved oxygen (DO)
52. Oxygen sag curve: what is it? What causes it? What are the consequences?
53. Aerobic vs. anaerobic decomposition:† differences in decay products?
54. Nutrients sources and consequences
55. Causes and consequences of eutrophication
56. Oligotrophic vs. eutrophic lakes: how similar? how different?
57. Natural vs. cultural eutrophication
58. Sediments and turbidity of surface waters
59. Toxic chemicals: types and reasons for concern?
1. Is risk based
on adults or children?
2. FYI: http://dnr.wi.gov/org/water/fhp/fish/pages/consumption/index.shtml
pollution: conditions where itís more likely 63. Groundwater
Pollution: causes, types, and relative significance 64. Pollution
65. Goals of the Clean Water Act
66. Hazardous vs.
67. Solubility (water vs fat or oil soluble)
68. Bioaccumulation, biomagnification (on exam 2)
factors; dose, acute vs. chronic
71. What factors influence sensitivity of organisms to toxins?
72. Basic types of
health responses to toxins/pollutants 73. Dose -
response 74. LD50 75. Why is it
difficult to predict chronic effects? 76. Risk and risk
policy: important factors to consider 77. Endocrine
disrupters (see pages 202 and 204; or (167 9th ed))