Promoting STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics) fields by recruiting and training the next generation of aerospace stakeholders.    

Undergraduate Research Award Recipients

The Undergraduate Research Awards Program provides awards to qualified students from WSGC Affiliate Member colleges and universities to create and implement a small research study of their own design as academic year, summer, or part-time employment that is directly related to their interests and career objectives in space science, aerospace, or space-related studies.

A faculty or research staff member on student's campus will act as an advisor for the research study, which is conceptualized and designed by the student. WSGC will locate a scientist or engineer from one of the research-intensive universities to act as a second mentor for successful applicants. WSGC is pleased to announce and congratulate the following students on their WSGC Undergraduate Research Awards:


Anna Christenson
University of Wisconsin-Madison
Major: Physics
High School: Owatonna High School
Research Title/Area: Muon Radiography Study
Synopsis: Our team of seven students are beginning to explore the feasibility of using muons for archeology purposes; simulating with GEANT, using c++ programming and looking into muon detector technology.

Jane Christenson
University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point
Major: Astrophysics, Physics
High School: Stevens Point Area Sr. High
Research Title/Area: "Nature versus Nurture" in a Study of Bulges in Early-type Spiral Galaxies
Synopsis: This project will compare properties of bulges in isolated early-type spirals with those of identical morphology in denser environments. This might shed some light on galaxy formation and evolution.

Colin Egerer
University of Wisconsin-La Crosse
Major: Physics and Mathematics
High School: Pioneer High School
Research Title/Area: Investigating Models of Dark Matter Halos: New or Old Physics?
Synopsis: Dark matter halos are believed to be responsible for the creation of galaxies and other large structures. This project will examine various models of dark matter halos and the physics behind them.

Daniel Hesse
University of Wisconsin-Madison
Major: Astronomy and Physics
High School: Cedarburg High School
Research Title/Area: Exploring Timescales of Post Starburst Galaxy Evolution
Synopsis: My project will involve processing and analyzing optical data with the goal of constraining time scales of galactic mergers.

Briana Indahl
University of Wisconsin-Madison
Major: Astronomy and Physics
High School: West Salem High School
Research Title/Area: Detector Characterization for the Robert Stobie Spectrograph- Near Infrared
Synopsis: I propose to implement methods to characterize the detector for the Robert Stobie Spectrograph Near Infrared Arm being built by UW-Madison for the 11-meter Southern African Large Telescope.

Tyler Laszczkowski
University of Wisconsin-La Crosse
Major: Physics and Astronomy
High School: Northland Pines High School
Research Title/Area: Expanding Our Knowledge of Interstellar Neutral Hydrogen Shells
Synopsis: The primary goal of this project is expand the database of known neutral hydrogen shells in our Galaxy, so their evolution and interactions can be better understood.

Mitchell Reecher
Carthage College
Major: Physics, High School Education
High School: Byron High School
Research Title/Area: Construction of a Kenoshan Field Mill Network
Synopsis: This project will use an electric field network to study the charge transfer that occurs during a lightning storm and how the resulting electric fields affect the surrounding environment.


Kristie Hansen
University of Wisconsin-Whitewater
Major: Biology and Geology
High School: Badger High School
Research Title/Area: Gastropods of the Family Pleuroceridae as Survivors of Extinction
Synopsis: Pleuroceridaes have a long geologic history, having survived the end-Cretaceous mass. This study will compare three time-specific sampling points: Cretaceous, Early Cenozoic and Recent.

Christopher Hilgenberg
University of Wisconsin-Madison
Major: Astronomy and Physics
High School: Preble High School
Research Title/Area: DM-Ice: Closing in on Dark Matter through Pulse Discrimination
Synopsis: Dark matter research is young, and more analysis methods are needed to find these particles. One method is pulse discrimination which could expedite data filtering and increase confidence levels.

Joseph Krueger
University of Wisconsin-La Crosse
Major: Physics and Mathematics
High School: Homeschooled
Research Title/Area: Investigation of Conductivity & Optical Transmittance of ZnO/Cu Thin Films
Synopsis: This project seeks to establish the suitability of ZnO/Cu multilayer thin films for use in solar cells. I will examine the relationship between conductivity and optical transparency of the films.

Stephen Looney
University of Wisconsin-Madison
Major: Materials Science and Engineering
High School: Central High School
Research Title/Area: Phase Diagram Study of the Ti-Al-Nb-Cr System for Aero-engine Applications
Synopsis: Finding the ratio of the Ti-Al-Nb-Cr alloying elements that yield higher ductility while maintaining adequate corrosion resistance could lead to substitution of current turbine blades with this alloy.

Kelsey Meinerz
Marquette University
Major: Physics
High School: Pius XI
Research Title/Area: A Simplified Model for Flagellar Motion
Synopsis: We will test a model for flagellar motion. We'll see if springs exert forces similar to a flagellum in fluid. By better understanding life on Earth, it will be easier to find life on other planets.

Karissa Metko
University of Wisconsin-Madison
Major: Physics
High School: Hortonville High School
Research Title/Area: Modeling of Interiors of Planets and Generation of Magnetic Fields
Synopsis: I will be modeling the interior structure of planets to study the properties of magnetic fields.

Tyler Nickel
University of Wisconsin-La Crosse
Major: Physics and Computer Sciences
High School: Byron High School
Research Title/Area: Single-Photon Detection using Quantum-Dot-Gated RLC Resonant Circuits
Synopsis: A quantum-dot based single-photon detector will be integrated into a resonant RLC circuit. Because the circuit functions as a bandpass noise filter, it promises to exhibit improved the sensitivity.

Nickolas Pingel
University of Wisconsin-Madison
Major: Astronomy and Physics
High School: Plymouth High School
Research Title/Area: A Measure of Turbulence in MBM16 Through H I Column Density Distributions
Synopsis: Through the a simple relationship between higher order statistical moments and sonic Mach number we derive an estimate for turbulence present in the molecular cloud MBM16.

Mitchell Powers
University of Wisconsin-Madison
Major: Physics
High School: White Bear Lake High School
Research Title/Area: A Novel Technique for Fabricating Metalized Objects with Difficult eometrie
Synopsis: Stereolithography is a way to make plastic objects with extreme precision. Metal plating these objects can be hard in cases of weird geometries, limiting its uses. I seek to overcome this.

Michael Ramuta
University of Wisconsin-Madison
Major: Astronomy and Physics
High School: Neuqua Valley High School
Research Title/Area: Structure and Behavior of AWM and MKW Clusters
Synopsis: This project will analyze the structure and behavior of galaxy clusters using x-ray and optical data.


Ali Bramson
University of Wisconsin-Madison
Major: Planetary Sciences & Computer Science
High School: Verona High School, Verona, WI
Research Title/Area: Using Networking Algorithms to Assess the Environment of Galaxy Groups
Synopsis: Interdisciplinary networking algorithms will be applied to galaxy groups and clusters to quantify the separation between the groups, and identify substructure within groups. This will result in a more concrete way to define a galaxy group and to quantify the strength of the community structure within it, providing a new way to classify galactic environment.

Hanna Herbst
University of Wisconsin-Madison
Major: Astronomy & Astrophysics
High School: Winneconne High School, Winnecone, WI
Research Title/Area: Studying the Environment of Fossil Groups

Megan Jones
University of Wisconsin-Madison
Major: Astronomy & Astrophysics
High School: Washington Park High School, Racine, WI
Research Title/Area: Population Analysis of Seyfert Galaxies in the Coma-Abell 1367 Supercluster

Kyle Kimminau
Marquette University
Major: Physics & Computer Science
High School: Dundee Crown High School, Carpentersville, IL
Research Title/Area: Effects of Cosmic Rays on Ferromagnetic Nanowire Devices
Synopsis: My research is going to look into the effects of radiation in space on the workings of ferromagnetic nanowires and their ability to store information via magnetic domain walls. I will do this using computer simulations to model the dynamics of nanoscale magnetics and domain wall motion while being irradiated with high energy particles.

Rhiannon LaVine
University of Wisconsin-Whitewater
Major: Paleobiology & Astrobiology
High School: Wilmot Union High School, Wilmot, WI
Research Title/Area: Geochemistry and Biostratigraphy of the Permian-Triassic Transitional Environment, Pine Forest Range, Nevada
Synopsis: The Pine Forest Range, located within the accreted terranes of Northwestern Nevada, contains an unnamed limestone formation with exposed adjacent strata that are Late Permian and Early Triassic in age. In order to confirm the presence of a conformable Permian-Triassic boundary interval and explore the environment in which the sediments were deposited, samples from the site will be analyzed for biostratigraphic significance and geochemical patterns that may be comparable to those of same age rocks found elsewhere.

Jacob Oberman
University of Wisconsin-Madison
Major: Atmospheric Science & Environmental Science
High School: Milton High School, Milton, WI
Research Title/Area: Use of Satellite Data to Quantify Uncertainty in Midwestern Emissions
Synopsis: This project concentration is of nitrogen dioxide in the atmosphere using satellite data. Our goal is to better understand the effect of heat waves on U.S. air pollution and emissions.

Nickolas Pingel
University of Wisconsin-Madison
Major: Astronomy & Astrophysics
High School: Plymouth High School, Plymouth, WI
Research Title/Area: Magnetohydrodynamic Turbulence at High-Latitude Regions of the Milky Way
Synopsis: High order statistical moments will be applied to neutral hydrogen(HI) column density images of high-latitude observations of the Milky Way in order to investigate the turbulent properties of the gas. The goal of this analysis is to find a relationship between the applied higher order moments and the amount turbulence present in the interstellar medium at these high latitudes. In doing so will contribute to the development of a complete astrophysical theory on turbulence.

Adric Preuschl
University of Wisconsin-Whitewater
Major: Earth Sciences
High School: Beloit Memorial High School, Beloit, WI
Research Title/Area: Comparing the Paleoecolgy of Glacial Lakes Scuppernong and Lahontan
Synopsis: My research consists of comparing the paleoecologies of two glacial lakes from the Pleistocene -- Lake Lahontan in Northwestern Nevada, and Lake Scuppernong in Southern Wisconsin.

Michael Ramuta
University of Wisconsin-Madison
Major: Astronomy & Mathematics
High School: Kettering Neuqua Valley High School, Naperville, IL
Research Title/Area: HI Content of Groups of Galaxies
Synopsis: This project will analyze HI content of galaxy groups from the ALFALFA Survey to gain a further understanding of the evolution and nature of galaxy groups.

Sara Stanchfield
University of Wisconsin-Madison
Major: Physics & Astronomy
High School: Mayo High School, Darlington, SC
Research Title/Area: Optical Coupling of Microwave Radiation to Transition-Edge Microbolometers


Jesse DePinto
Marquette University
Major: Physics
High School: Kettering Fairmont High School, Kettering, OH
Research Title/Area: A Radio and X-Ray Study of Type II Supernovae
Synopsis: This project is to determine the mass-loss history and distribution of the circumstellar material in supernovae and will improve our current categorizations using x-ray and radio observations.

Victoria Hartwick
University of Wisconsin-Madison
Majors: Astronomy-Physics & Microbiology
High School: Divine Savior Holy Angels High School, Milwaukee, WI
Research Title/Area: Identification of Crystallized Ice on Kuiper Belt Objects
Synopsis: This study is an investigation of early solar system conditions through identification of crystallized ice on Kuiper Belt Object, icy bodies in the outer solar system.

Jane Kaczmarek
University of Wisconsin-Madison
Majors: Astronomy & Physics
High School: Muskego High School, Muskego, WI
Research Title/Area: The 3-D Structure of the Abell 1367-Coma Supercluster
Synopsis: We map the 3-D structure of the Abell 1367-Coma Supercluster using the Tully-Fisher relationship using HI and near-IR data. Our model will allow us to compare observable structure with simulations.

Jacob Miller
University of Wisconsin-Madison
Majors: Physics & Astronomy
High School: Wrightstown High School, Wrightstown, WI
Research Title/Area: Simulations of Double-Bent Radio Sources
Synopsis: My research focus involves computer simulations of jet outflows from Active Galactic Nuclei in order to better understand the link between AGN and the evolution of Galaxy Clusters.  

Benjamin Oleson
University of Wisconsin-La Crosse
Major: Physics
High School: New Lisbon High School, New Lisbon, WI
Research Title/Area: Morphological Investigation of Annealed Zinc Oxide Alloy Films
Synopsis: This project increases the understanding of fundamental properties of the transparent conducting oxide materials needed to improve solar energy device efficiency.   

Anthony Pavkovich
University of Wisconsin-Madison
Majors: Applied Math, Engineering, and Physics & Astronomy
High School: Washburn High School, Washburn, WI
Research Title/Area: A Further Study of Low-Column Density CNM Clouds
Synopsis: By comparing recent simulations and observations, we hope to constrain models of ISM dynamics in order to properly reproduce low-column density CNM formations.   

Sara Stanchfield
University of Wisconsin-Madison
Majors: Physics & Astronomy
High School: Mayo High School, Rochester, MN
Research Title/Area: Big Bang Blackbody Simulator
Synopsis: The purpose of the Big Black Blackbody Simulator is to construct a blackbody 'cold load' to measure the response of microwave sensors to signals similar to that of the cosmic microwave background.   

Elizabeth Tennyson
University of Wisconsin-La Crosse

Major: Astronomy & Physics
High School: Oregon High School, Oregon, WI
Research Title/Area: Neutral Hydrogen Shells in the Interstellar Medium
Synopsis: This project will improve our knowledge of how shells interact with and affect the ambient interstellar medium, by studying the properties of several Neutral Hydrogen shells at multiple wavelengths.  

Melissa Wheeler
University of Wisconsin-La Crosse
Majors: Physics & Spanish
High School: Fond du Lac High School, Fond du Lac, WI
Research Title/Area: Towards Better Understanding of Dark Matter Halo Structures around Galaxies
Synopsis: This research will use computer simulations to investigate the behavior of dark matter, which does not emit detectable light, that surrounds galaxies and analyze evaluation methods.  


Sean Harrington

Sean Harrington
University of Wisconsin-La Crosse
Major: Physics and Mathematics
High School: Marshfield HS, Marshfield, WI
Research Title/Area: Single-Photon Dector for Deep-Space Communication
Synopsis: Utilizing optical communications for deep-space transmissions will likely lead to increased data rates and extended link lengths, essential for space exploration. Detectors sensitive to individual photons have proven to be essential components for maximizing the efficiency of long-range optical communication systems. This research project will study single-photon detection utilizing tiny beads of semiconductor material known as quantum dots (QDs). In these structures, called QDOGFETs (QD, optically gated, field-effect transistor), a photon is detected through an exchange of energy between an absorbed photon and a QD, which changes the electrical characteristics of the surrounding transistor. The QDOGFET demonstrates capabilities not offered by traditional single-photon detectors: photon-number resolution. I will investigate the temperature dependence of the detection process and the mechanisms that limit performance.

Dan Hawk

Daniel Hawk
University of Wisconsin-Green Bay
Major: Human Biology, Pre-Nursing, Nutrition, Chemistry
High School: West De Pere HS, De Pere, WI
Research Title/Area: Astronaut Advanced Life Support Extended Stay
Synopsis: In the race to the moon we don’t want to be last! The U.S. must remain on the cutting edge of space-based technology. It is no secret that the moon has precious elements such as helium-3 that could be used to solve our current energy problem. However, that means we must send astronauts to live and work on the moon for extended periods of time. So how do we do that? This proposal looks at some of the problems facing astronauts by using research questions to help find solutions for astronaut advanced life support.

Bradle Rentz

Bradley Rentz
Marquette University
Major: Physics and German
High School: Saint Xavier HS, Cincinnati, OH
Research Title/Area: Radio Analysis of Type IIb Supernovae
Synopsis: The objective of the project is to determine the mass-loss history and other details relevant to life and death of type IIb Supernova progenitor stars by analyzing archival radio data. I will analyze archival data from radio observations of type IIb supernovae (SNe) blastwaves and determine how they interact with the circumstellar medium (CSM), the material shed by the SN progenitor stars before they died, to determine the mass-loss history of the SN progenitor. The results of this analysis could lead to a better understanding of the life and decay of type IIb SN progenitor stars. The archival data will be analyzed with the help of the computer program AIPS (Astronomical Image Processing System), designed for the analysis of radio data. The analysis is primarily concerned with determining the intensity of the radio wave emission at several wavelengths with respect to time of the initial blast. The results of the analysis will be used to develop the mass-loss history of the SN progenitor star.

Jacob Miller

Jacob Miller
University of Wisconsin-Madison
Major: Physics, Astrophysics
High School: Wrightstown HS, Wrightstown, WI
Research Title/Area: Study of Active Galactic Nuclei in Galaxy Clusters Using Numerical and Computer Simulations
Synopsis: The project I have chosen to work on is modeling the jet outflow from an Active Galactic Nucleus as it passes through a Galaxy Cluster and interacts with neighboring Galaxies. This will involve extensive modifications to existing computer simulations, so the first step will be to learn the necessary program languages and begin to dissect the existing code the research group has been working with to reflect the unique conditions found in a cluster. The end result would ideally be a full computer simulation of a whole Galaxy Cluster, with at least one Galaxy containing a central Black Hole. This model should include interactions between the host Galaxy and others in the Cluster, ideally including near collisions in which the jet’s behavior would be drastically altered by the interaction.

Melania Riabokin

Melania Riaboki
University of Wisconsin-Madison
Major: Astronomy, Physics
High School: Conserve School, Land O' Lakes, WI
Research Title/Area: Melding Theory with Observation of Galaxy Groups to Solve the Heating Problem
Synopsis: Our goal is to solve the 'heating problem' in galaxy groups. We have previously derived a formula for what the group temperature should be, with heating by gravitational collapse only. We propose to test our theory for the gravitational heating of galaxy groups and refine it by comparing our predictions for model groups against observations of real groups. We believe that this comparison will be illuminating as to how much heating has been done on the group and what mechanism is the most probable source of that amount of heating.

Jonathon Slightam

Jonathon Slightam
Milwaukee School of Engineering
Major: Mechanical Engineering
High School: Adams-Friendship HS, Friendship, WI
Research Title/Area: Energy Storage and Production
Synopsis: The emphasis on developing greener alternative power sources is needed more now than ever before. Currently, there are many applications of alternative power sources for use in the home, aeronautics, and the automobile industry. The purpose of the majority of alternative power sources today include impacting the environment in a less negative way and steering away from the use of oil based fuels. While there are several types of alternative power sources in aeronautic and automotive vehicles, few have long range capabilities and high rates of efficiency. The applications of regenerative fuel cell systems (RFCS) are type of alternative power source that can be applied throughout a variety of fields, especially in aeronautic and automobile applications. Such systems have been tested to be used with long range aircraft such as the HALE aircraft project. In a project that was conducted by NASA in 2005, the efficiency of a regenerative fuel cell system was tested. Surprisingly, the test overall was a success. However, with NASA’s continuous operating RFCS, there were contributing factors to the systems that caused inefficiencies. It was determined that the fuel cells and thermal insulation were a contributing factor to the system. The goal of this project is to develop a regenerative fuel cell system with a combination of photovoltaic solar array and linear induction generators to charge the fuel cells continuously. This system is aimed to run continuously over the span of three to five days, in addition to being more efficient than the RFCS demonstrated by NASA in 2005.


Neal Bitter
Milwaukee School of Engineering
Majors: Mechanical Engineering, Fluids or Aerodynamics
High School: Luther Preparatory School, Watertown, WI
Research Title/Area: Aerodynamics: The Effects of Boundary Layer Tripping on Airfoil Performance
Synopsis: This research project will examine the effects of boundary layer tripping on airfoil performance.  When air flowing over the surface of a wing encounters an abrupt ridge, the laminar boundary layer transforms into a turbulent boundary layer.  This alters the way in which air flows over the wing profile and affects the drag and lift of the wing.  This project will use calculations from boundary layer theory, wind tunnel testing, and a smoke tunnel with a high-speed camera to optimize flow characteristics over an airfoil.

Jordan Gerth
University of Wisconsin-Madison
Majors: Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, Math
High School: Tremper High School, Kenosha, WI
Research Title/Area: Enhancing Numerical Weather Prediction Initial Conditions with MODIS
Synopsis: The wide distribution of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model has led to National Weather Service (NWS) field offices around the country engaging in the process of local numerical weather prediction (NWP).  The manner in which these local WRF models are initialized is typically ineffective.  Better initialization files could be constructed by using satellite data, including observations from the MODIS satellites, Aqua and Terra, and from GOES sounders.

Dan Hawk
University of Wisconsin-Green Bay
Majors: Human Biology, Pre-Nursing, Nutrition, Chemistry
High School: West De Pere HS, De Pere, WI
Research Title/Area: Astronaut Advanced Life Support Extended Stay
Synopsis: As we plan to colonize the moon and Mars, perhaps forward thinking for the survival of the human race, the element carbon (C) becomes the single most important element of study.  This project will research the boundaries of carbon regarding lunar and Martian regolith plant stress, such as mixture, surface to volume ratio, photosynthesis or lack thereof (to grow plants in the dark).  This is a carbon sequestration research proposal.  Its applications are relevant to today's global warming threat.

Michael Heim
Marquette University
Majors: Physics, Astronomy, Math
High School: Wheaton North HS, Wheaton, IL
Research Title/Area: Radio Observations of Type II Supernovae
Synopsis: This research project will entail training to learn how to calibrate, edit, and image the VLA radio data taken so it can be analyzed to determine the physical evolution of the observed Supernova explosion and the pre-explosion evolution of the profenitor stars.  By studying these Supernova remnants, it can be learned what the star was doing before it died and deduce what caused these processes.

Melissa Jacquart
University of Wisconsin-Madison
Majors: Astronomy, Physics, Philosophy
High School: Highland Park Sr. HS, St. Paul, MN
Research Title/Area: Energy Injection into IGM by AGN
Synopsis: This is a currently undergoing study that is measuring the amount of energy that has been injected into the intragroup medium by individual active galactic nuclei over the last 100-200Myr.

Cheryl Perich
Marquette University
Major: Mechanical Engineering
High School: Carl Sandburg HS, Orland Park, IL
Research Title/Area: Analysis of the Formation and Excavation of a Simulated Planetary Impact Sight
Synopsis: The main objective of this research program is to investigate the geology and natural resources on other planets, specifically the search for water.  This objective will be obtained by experimentally and numerically simulating the creation and formation of high velocity impact sites on planetary terrain, such as those resulting from a meteoroid impact.

Cyrus Vandrevala
Marquette University
Major: Biomedical Engineering
High School: Libertyville HS, Libertyville, IL
Research Title/Area: Radio Astronomy of Supernova
Synopsis: The goal of this project is to review and analyze any archived data available on Supernovae so more accurate conclusions about the life and death of the massive progenitor can be drawn.

Rachel Worth
University of Wisconsin-Madison
Majors: Astronomy-Physics, Music
High School: Fond du Lac HS, Fond du Lac, WI
Research Title/Area: The Distribution and Kinematics of Neutral Hydrogen in Dwarf Galaxies Sextans A and B
Synopsis: Through the study of bubbles in neutral hydrogen in dwarf galaxies, this project will study the effects of massive stars on the interstellar medium. 


Ruben Behnke
University of Wisconsin-Green Bay
Major: Environmental Science
High School: Hilbert HS, Hilbert, WI
Research Title/Area: Physical Characteristics of Cities Affecting Urban Climatology
Synopsis: In the fall of 2006, Behnke conducted research on the effect of city size, city population, city density, and changes in these variables in the period 1960 – 1996 on rates of temperature change in 562 U.S. cities and towns.  He found significant results for the correlation of change in city area to change in temperature; however, city population and city density and changes in these variables in the time period were not significantly correlated to temperature changes.  The significant results achieved in the first study with respect to change in area, as well as the fact that there are many more variables and cities that could be included has given Behnke a very high interest in continuing this study so that it provides useable data for urban and general climatology studies.

Kaitlyn Cariker
University of Wisconsin-Madison
Major: Astronomy-Physics
High School: R. L. Paschal HS, Fort Worth, TX
Research Title/Area: Nea Infrared Observations of Galaxies
Synopsis: Cariker will search for high redshift galaxies.  This project will provide a better understanding of early galaxies and their star formation and ionization rates.



Zachary & Matthew Christman
University of Wisconsin-Green Bay
Major: Environmental Science
High School: Green Bay West HS, Green Bay, WI
Research Title/Area: Investigation of Extraterrestrial Microtextures at the Smithsonian Museum of Natural History
Synopsis: Textures found at the microscale have not received high quantities of research, which has focused on features visible by the unaided eye, thin sections, and electron microscopes.  The Mars rovers Spirit and Opportunity have brought the need for research in this area to greater attention with their amazing photos of sedimentary structures.  By analyzing microtextures of a variety of surfaces, including those generated by meteorites, a better understanding can be gained of what formed them, and how they change over time.  The research conducted in this study will greatly enhance the knowledge of meteorite microtextures by utilizing the collections of the Smithsonian Museum of Natural History.  Information from this work will be added to the NASA Mars Research Library for research and public use.

Jordan Gerth
University of Wisconsin-Madison
Majors: Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, Math
High School: Tremper HS, Kenosha, WI
Research Title/Area: Enhancing Numerical Weather Prediction Initial Conditions by Integrating MODIS Data
Synopsis: The wide distribution of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model has led to National Weather Service (NWS) field offices around the country engaging in the process of local numerical weather prediction (NWP).  The manner in which these local WRF models are initialized is typically ineffective.  Better initialization files could be constructed by using satellite data, including observations from the MODIS satellites, Aqua and Terra, and from GOES sounders.

Christopher Heaser
Marquette University, Milwaukee
Majors: Physics, Chemistry
High School: Centennial HS, Circle Pines, MN
Research Title/Area: Radio Observations of Core-Collapse Supernovae
Synopsis: Heaser will use the Very Large Array (VLA) to analyze radio observations of various supernovae, the explosive deaths of very massive stars.  He will generate radio light curves that will provide a history of the star’s mass loss rates prior to explosion.

Toby Heyn
University of Wisconsin-Madison
Majors: Mechanical Engineering, Applied Math
High School: Neenah HS, Neenah, WI
Research Title/Area: Using New Discrete Modeling Techniques and Large Scale Parallel Computation for Investigation of Sand Dynamics
Synopsis: Existing algorithms will be applied to the computer simulation of large dynamic multibody systems with contacts and impacts. These methods will be extended to sand simulation through implementation in a parallel computational environment that draws on the Message Passing Interface (MPI) standard.

Chelsey Jelinski
Milwaukee School of Engineering
Major: Mechanical Engineering
High School: Stevens Point Area Senior High, Stevens Point, WI
Research Title/Area: Low and High Velocity Impact of Spectra®/Carbon Fiber Sandwich Composites
Synopsis: The topic being studied in this project is the strength and stiffness of different combinations of Spectra and carbon fiber fabric in composite sandwiches subjected to low and high velocity impacts.  It is important to study different materials that could be used in aerospace to make structures lighter and stronger.  These structures are subjected to high velocity impacts such as bird collisions and runway debris or low velocity impacts such as tool drop.  The core study is to test these materials under high velocity impact using a high velocity gas powered gun and under low velocity impact using a drop tower.  This is since necessary even in the absence of fiber breakage; the mechanical performance of the composite sandwiches can be drastically affected.  Although damages may not be seen by the naked eye, matrix cracking and delaminations can significantly weaken the entire structure.  The study will determine the strength of these materials under low and high velocity impacts.

Kristen Jones
University of Wisconsin-Madison
Majors: Physics, Astronomy
High School: Robbinsdale Cooper HS, New Hope, MN
Research Title/Area: Observational Cosmology and Radio Astronomy
Synopsis: This project will build an array of small radio telescopes capable of observing the 21-cm line.  Using these observations, Jones will compare the methods of adding and multiplying interferometry and seek a way to improve the effectiveness of either.

Anthony Kuchera
University of Wisconsin-Oshkosh
Major: Physics
High School: St. Catherine's HS, Racine, WI
Research Title/Area: Studying the Monoceros Star-Forming Complex
Synopsis: Kuchera will perform a photometric study of the Monoceros star-forming complex of the Milky Way, which will help establish a homogeneous distance scale to the prominent stellar groups in the field and study its spatial structure.

Timothy Larsen
University of Wisconsin-Madison
Major: Astro-Physics
High School: Centennial HS, Champaign, IL
Research Title/Area: The Mass Assembly History of the Universe
Synopsis: Larsen will continue an ongoing study consisting of spectroscopic analysis of many different fields using multi wavelength data.  From this data, he wants to determine the mass assembly history of the universe.  He will be looking at low red-shift sources (3 > z > 0) and will be adding the results to observations made of high red-shift sources.  This data will then be combined with samples from the Spitzer/IRAC.  With this large set of data, Larsen will then be able to measure and show the history of mass distributions as traced by rest frame H-band.  This will cover a large range of red-shifts (0 < z < 3).

Eric Phillips
University of Wisconsin-Whitewater
Major: Physics
High School: Greenfield HS, Greenfield, WI
Research Title/Area: Mapping the Vertical Stellar Structure of the Galaxy
Synopsis: While the Milky Way Galaxy's disk is about 600,000 light years across, the thickness of the galaxy in some places can be only about 600 light years thick.  However, this 1000:1 ratio is not a constant throughout the galaxy. Phillips will examine how the structure of the galaxy varies as a function of height, focusing on the vertical structure of the Galactic bar.  To complete this task Phillips will use optical data gathered from Kitt Peak National Observatory and combine it with near and mid-infrared data from other sources.

Nick Schafer
University of Wisconsin-Madison
Majors: Physics, Math, Chemistry, Molecular Biology, Astronomy
High School: Omaha North HS, Omaha, NE
Research Title/Area: An Investigation on New Numerical Methods for Molecular Dynamics Simulation 
Synopsis: Newly developed implicit and variational integrators will be used to solve benchmark Molecular Dynamics problems and simulation accuracy, robustness, and efficiency will be compared to currently used methods.

Aaron Willcutt
University of Wisconsin-La Crosse
Majors: Physics, Engineering
High School: Faribault HS, Faribault, MN
Research Title/Area: Discovery and Measurement of Far-Infrared Laser Emissions
Synopsis: The object of this research is to discover laser emissions from the 13CHD2OH isotopic form of methanol in the far-infrared (FIR) region.  Once discovered, the FIR laser emissions will be characterized and their frequencies measured.


Quintin Bendixen
University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee
Major: Geoscience
High School: Eisenhower HS, New Berlin, WI
Research Title/Area: Planetary Geology
Synopsis: The cold and dry continent of Antarctica can be used as a Martian analogue. Found within the Allan Hills, Antarctica are eolian formed dunes consisting of gravel clasts that could mimic the landscape of Mars.

Gustav Borstad
University of Wisconsin-La Crosse
Majors: Physics and Mathematics
High School: Independent Study HS, Lincoln, NE
Research Title/Area: Investigation of the Hydroxyl Radical Using Laser Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
Synopsis: The object of the proposed research is to investigate the hydroxyl free radical through the use of high-resolution spectroscopy in the far-infrared. The experimental technique used to probe this molecule is known as laser magnetic resonance.

Joshua Hakala
University of Wisconsin-La Crosse
Major: Physics w/ Astronomy emphasis
High School: Elkhart Lake HS, Elkhart Lake, WI
Research Title/Area: Interstellar Medium – Astronomy
Synopsis: When massive stars die, they explode, sending an expanding shell into the surrounding interstellar medium (ISM). Using H-a images, we will compare maps of ionized and neutral hydrogen to learn how the shell is interacting with the ISM.

Adam Hinkle
Marquette University
Major: Physics
High School: Hayden HS,Topeka, KS
Research Title/Area: Theoretical Physics; Cosmology
Synopsis: A Lorentz-violating theory, the Standard Model Extension (SME) exists which provides a picture of new physics lying just beyond conventional theory and experiment. Additionally, recent cosmological observations and measurements are providing rich data for confirmation of theories of our universe, in particular, confirmation of Lorentz violation in nature. One such measurement that of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) has invited a special opportunity to study the SME. My proposed project is an analysis using theoretical and numerical techniques to identify the nature of Lorentz violation in the polarization of the CMB.

Matthew Kelley
Marquette University
Major: Physics
High School: Spencer HS, Spencer, WI
Research Title/Area: Radio Analysis of Core Collapse Supernovae
Synopsis: I will study core collapse supernovae by measuring their radio waves emitted as the shock interacts with the circum stellar material. By doing this I will be studying the evolution of the progenitor before the explosion. Through long term monitoring of supernovae, a model can be created to describe them. By understanding supernovae, we may be able to understand things like distances and gamma ray bursts better.

Patrick Liesch
University of Wisconsin-Parkside
Major: Biology
High School: JI Case HS, Racine, WI
Research Title/Area: Astrobiology - Role of Organic Silicates in the Biomineralization Process
Synopsis: Polymerization of silicic acid occurs rapidly when added to many of the amino acids and their Maillard products. There are essentially two mechanisms for the preservation of amino acids and Maillard products in silicates. First, the amino acids or Maillard products could simply be entombed during the polymerization process. Secondly, the amino acids or Maillard products could react to bond to the silica gel. Infrared spectroscopy will be used to investigate these possibilities by focusing on the 1000-1200 cm-1 region, where the Si-O-Si and Si-O-C bond frequencies can be found. Deuteration will help resolve the peaks in the infrared spectra. Column chromatography will also be used to investigate the possibility that amino acids and their Maillard products bind to silicic acid but remain in a soluble form.

Allison Noble
University of Wisconsin-Madison
Majors: Physics and Astrophysics
High School: Homestead HS, Mequon, WI
Research Title/Area: Cosmology
Synopsis: I propose to build and erect three small radio telescopes on the roof of the physics building, Chamberlin, in order to develop and test new techniques for interferometry. An interferometer is an array of telescopes that combines signals to generate a higher resolution image of the sky than a single, smaller antenna can create by itself. I will build and compare an “adding interferometer” with a “multiplying interferometer.” My results will be used to design the millimeter-wave bolometric interferometer (MBI), a 1000-telescope array that will measure the polarization anisotropy—variation in the polarization that depends upon the direction of its measurement—of the cosmic microwave background radiation. These faint fluctuations, a result of primordial gravitational waves produced during the period of inflation directly after the Big Bang, will shed light on the physics of the early universe. My research will help to limit systematic error of the instrument and contribute to the success of MBI, a prototype for NASA’s Einstein Inflation Probe. I also propose to create an outreach program in which the community will have access to the telescopes to elicit scientific interest amongst students.

Sarah Palmer
University of Wisconsin-LaCrosse
Majors: Physics and Math
High School: Lincoln High School, Manitowoc, WI
Research Title/Area: OVI line from the Eridanus Superbubble
Synopsis: Measurements of OVI emission in the direction of the Eridanus superbubble will help unlock information about the interstellar medium.

Melania Riabokin
University of Wisconsin-Madison
Majors: Astronomy and Physics
High School: Conserve HS, Land O' Lakes, WI
Research Title/Area: Astrophysics
Synopsis: This proposed research project consists of taking data on the HI in a selected group of magellanic spiral galaxies (both interacting and non-interacting) in order to reach a conclusion regarding the galaxies’ asymmetry. The visual data that is gathered on the galaxies is not sufficient to produce accurate approximating of mass in the galaxies because about 90% of the matter in them is ‘dark’ or not detectable in the visible light images of galaxies.

Benjamin Rizzo
Marquette University
Major: Physics
High School: Marquette University HS, Milwaukee, WI
Research Title/Area: Atmospheric Models (Mars)
Synopsis: Numerical modeling techniques of the Earth’s atmosphere has proven useful when applied to the atmosphere of Mars. With this past year’s efforts at Marquette University, atmospheric models have been used to study the convection and turbulence conditions of the Martian atmosphere. However, further analysis is required for a more accurate depiction of the weather conditions present on Mars. This year’s proposal seeks to build upon our previous work by introducing the effects of ambient wind. These models have the potential to be useful tools in predicting prospective landing sites for further Mars research while providing a means to model the atmosphere of other planets.

Alex Viana
University of Wisconsin-Madison
Major: Astrophysics
High School: Oak Park River Forest HS, Oak Park, IL
Research Title/Area: Galactic Evolution and Asymmetry
Synopsis: Our project proposes a multispectral investigation quantifying point and axial asymmetries in an isolated set of galaxies in order to test for a correlation between asymmetric gravitational potentials and non-interacting galaxies.


Bustamante, Jennifer
Marquette University
Major/Title:  A Study of Convective Patterns in the Atmosphere of Mars

Garrod, Toby
UW-La Crosse
Major/Title:  Frequency Measurements of Optically Pumped Laser Emissions in the Far-infrared

Gneiser, Heidi
Major/Title:  Exploring W 43

Harrington, Alex
Major/Title:  Validating Numerical Forecasts Using GOES Satellite Products

Kaeppler, Stephen
Major/Title:  Mass Segregation and Binary Stars in Star Clusters NGC 188, M35, and NGC 6819

Krzyzewski, Sean
Marquette University
Major/Title:  VLBA Observations of J0253&3835, A Relativistic Jet with Extreme Bending

Marschke, Laura
UW-La Crosse
Major/Title:  Pulsars: A Key to Unlocking the Interstellar Medium

Stilp, Adrienne
Major/Title:  The Evolution of Small Groups of Galaxies as Studied through Neutral Hydrogen

Viana, Alex
Major/Title:  A Study of the Relationships of Star Formation Rates and Galactic Interactions on Asymmetric Galaxies


Jennifer Bustamante
Marquette University
Research: Astronomy: Photometric observations for the Transit Search Project
Synopsis: Transit Search is a differential photometry project designed to locate extrasolar planets. Stars are monitored using CCD-imaging in attempt to detect a small decrease in light on the order of 1-10% that would indicate a transiting planet.

Sabrina Dechene
Marquette University
Research: Radio Study of J1628-41a, Testing Physics with a Microquasar
Synopsis: Microquasars are physics laboratories which can be used to observe special and general relativity. I will be studying long-term observations of the microquasar J1628-41a so that I can better explain the frequent jet outbursts of this source.

Rebecca Grundy
University of Wisconsin-Madison
Research: Dark Matter in Groups of Galaxies
Synopsis: The vast majority of galaxies, including the Milky Way, reside in loose groups. A group is a small collection of 4-5 large galaxies and up to 25 small galaxies. Matter is not evenly dispersed throughout the Universe with most of the dark matter and baryon distribution in the intergalactic medium. It is important to understand the evolution that lead to this and why it continues to stay bounded together. The dynamical evolution of groups and the impact that has on the galaxies is relatively understudied. One of the major barriers to studying this has been the difficulty of determining proper group membership. Accurate radial velocities are needed in order to determine if a group is a bound entity, and multi-object spectroscopy allows one to establish group membership from radial velocities for a large number of galaxies at once. I will be calibrating and analyzing already obtained data of the NGC 664 galaxy group. The data was obtained using the multi-object spectrograph on the WIYN 3.5 meter telescope. I will learn how to use IRAF software, which is a software package designed for the calibration and analysis of optical astronomical data. With that software, I will be able to determine which galaxies are members of the group and work out the radial velocity of each membered galaxy by comparing the observed wavelength of their emission line(s) to the respective rest wavelength(s). I will plot the distribution of the radial velocities and by measuring the width of that distribution I can find the velocity dispersion and determine the total dynamical mass of NGC 664.

Alex Harrington
University of Wisconsin-Madison
Research: Undergraduate Research for CIMSS
Synopsis: Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) products, along with NASA satellite products, provide plausible options for validation. Qualitative analysis of CRAS satellite products, provide plausible options for validation. Qualitative analysis of CRAS satellite forecasts, correlated with actual GOES infrared and water vapor imagery will investigate the reality, or perhaps find discrepancies in the capability of the CRAS to forecast notable system features. Similarly, using NASA MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), a satellite instrument with high spatial resolution, one can qualitatively note satellite features, but more importantly, compare how satellite forecasts, as depicted by the CRAS, correspond to MODIS versus GOES. Do the results from the CRAS favor MODIS or GOES imagery? Specifically, I will save data throughout the month of June. With the CRAS model updating twice daily, I will save forecasted satellite imagery, explicitly infrared and water vapor images. I will then validate these images with corresponding GOES and MODIS imagery. Again, this technique only offers qualitative results. Therefore, I will save forecasted brightness temperatures, as depicted by the CRAS, validating the forecast with actual brightness temperatures. For objective comparisons, I will implement a statistical package that includes the following: Root Mean Square (RMS), threat scores, and gradient skill scores. Results will show that forecasted satellite imagery and brightness temperatures can be a useful tool for forecasters and numerical modelers. Furthermore, a website showing the progress and results of the research would certainly benefit NASA, numerical models, as well as the general public.

Stephen Kaeppler
University of Wisconsin-Madison
Research: Observational Cosmology - Cosmic Microwave Background
Synopsis: Superconducting microstrips might be the way of the future for transportation of signal between an antenna and the detector in observation of the Cosmic Microwave Background. Little previous research has been done on the topic and if this proves to be a useful technology, detectors and feed lines could be put onto single integrated circuits. The main measurement of the microstrips will be the power loss by using a “slit” test which varies length. The power loss of the feed line is to be minimized, and if an optimal design can be found, detector/microstrip coupling can be tested next.

Julie Karel
University of Wisconsin-Madison
Research: Deformation Induced Nanocrystalline in Amorphous Aluminum Alloys
Synopsis: Amorphous aluminum alloys with finely dispersed aluminum nanocrystals have exhibited ultra high tensile strengths and useful ductility while still maintaining lower densities. Unfortunately, not enough is known about the behavior of the nanocrystalline microstructure to make these alloys useful yet. Potential applications include lightweight materials, which would make these alloys extremely useful in the aerospace industry as a possible substitute for their denser, more expensive titanium-alloy counterparts. I will be studying how mechanical work performed on aluminum-rich metallic glasses effects the densities of nanocrystals that are present. It is hypothesized that greater densities of nanocrystals can be achieved than from thermal treatment alone. I will synthesize these amorphous aluminum alloys, characterize them based on their microstructure and determine the density of nanocrystals present. If a large density is present, this will provide an opportunity to study the impact of the novel nanocrystalline microstructure on structural properties. More specifically the measurement of elastic properties and other mechanical properties such as tensile strength and fatigue characteristics would allow for a determination of whether novel microstructures also exhibit superior properties. These superior properties are what would be of great benefit for future applications in the aerospace industry.

Brian Kaster
Marquette University
Research: Radio wave emissions from type II supernovae
Synopsis: When a star dies, a couple of different things can happen. After the collapse of the core, there can be thermal detonations, further collapses in to neutron stars or black holes, or supernovae. Supernovae are created when the core rebounds after collapse, creating a shockwave that is propelled out of the core. In type Ib/c and type II supernovae, this shockwave interacts with the cloud of gas that, during the life of the star, was stripped off and collected near the star. The interaction with this shockwave and the cloud of gas creates a radio signal that we receive in with the Very Large Array. After the data is flagged, calibrated, and imaged, analysis can proceed. Here the data is graphed as flux verses time on a logarithmic scale, creating a typical light curve. Variations in this light curve are the focus of the research. We use these data sets to try and explain the supernovae and events around them.

Christopher Klug
University of Wisconsin-Whitewater
Research: Geological Research involving Permian- Triassic Boundary and possible extraterrestrial cause
Synopsis: The Permian-Triassic boundary is now being viewed more and more as a location marking an extraterrestrial impact event. The data of this study will determine, if a conformable boundary exists in northwestern Nevada.

Adrienne Stilp
University of Wisconsin-Madison
Research: The Effects of Massive Stars on the Evolution of Galaxy NGC 4395
Synopsis: Active star formation does not occur in every galaxy in our Universe; those which are currently forming stars, known as “starbursts galaxies,” have many unusual properties. Both high and low mass stars and formed during episodes of star formation; however, because massive stars live for a much shorter time than their lower mass companions, starburst galaxies contain a much higher relative population of high to low mass stars than that of regular galaxies. Therefore, their effects on galactic evolution are much more easily witnessed in starburst galaxies. Stellar winds and supernovae explosions (SNe) from these massive stars affect the gas content of a galaxy, one of its primary components, by creating holes of ionized hydrogen gas and surrounding shells of H-alpha emission. Therefore, observations of both stellar populations, neutral hydrogen gas (HI), and H-alpha kinematics each factor into understanding the effects of massive stars on a galaxy’s evolution. I propose a comprehensive study of a single galaxy, NGC 4395, in which I will probe the stars’ effects on HI and H-alpha emission in order to correlate stellar winds and SNe with observed effects on the gaseous counterpart of the galaxy. The final goal of the project is to combine the analysis of the effects of massive stars with currently-accepted theories of galactic evolution.

Michael Theisen
University of Wisconsin-La Crosse
Research: Frequency Measurements of Far-Infrared Laser Emissions
Synopsis: The C-13 isotope of methanol, 13CH3OH, has been found to generate over 175 FIR laser emissions. Recently, seventeen FIR laser emission were discovered from this isotope and were reported with their measured wavelengths and operating characteristics (polarization, operating pressure, and relative intensity). Of the seventeen lines, spectroscopic assignments have been proposed for nine laser emissions. These spectroscopic assignments, however, can only be confirmed with the measurement of their frequencies. The goal of this work is to measure these frequencies and confirm their spectroscopic assignments.

Melanie Vils
University of Wisconsin-Madison
Research: The Rotational Velocities and Masses of Luminous Compact Blue Galaxies
Synopsis: The purpose of this project is to determine the rotational velocities, if any, of the twelve intermediate redshift, luminous compact blue galaxies from long-slit spectra. These results will then be used to make mass distribution estimates.


Bloom, Amelia
UW-La Crosse
Research:  Nuclear Physics

DiRocco, Christopher
UW-La Crosse
Research:  High Resolution Spectroscopy of Carbon-based Free Radicals in the Infrared

Grcevich, Jana
Research:  Extragalactic Astronomy-Galaxy Kinematics and the Impact of Massive Stars on their Host Galaxy

Kern, Katie
Research:  Researching the difference between active and inactive galaxies using radio data from the Very Large Array

Noffke, Paul
UW-La Crosse
Research:  Discovery of Laser Emissions from Methanol Isotopes

Powell, Jeffrey
UW-La Crosse
Research:  Euclidean and Color Dielectric Lattices and the Quark-Antiquark Potential


Bierman, Matthew
Research:  Particle Physics Relating to Stellar Objects

Gaal, Veronika
Research:  Structure & Evolution of Galaxies Through a Case Study of NGC1507

Nencka, Andrew
Research:  Astrophysics

Norman, Ryan
Research:  Space Radiation Shielding & Particle Physics

Stark, Daniel
Research:  Astronomy-Massive Star Formation Theory

Sutton, Daniel
Research:  High resolution Spectroscopy of Free Radicals in the Far-Infrared


Andrew Bowers
University of Wisconsin-Whitewater
Research:  Use of Hubble Space Telescope to Study Scattering in New Galaxies

Daniel Bush
University of Wisconsin-Oshkosh
Research:  Spectroscopy of Globular Clusters in the Galactic Halo

Natalie Fuchs
University of Wisconsin-LaCrosse
Research:  Optics Research - Far Infrared Laser Stark Spectoscopy

Angel Gladney
University of Wisconsin-Whitewater
Research:  Why Few African-Americans are Interested in Space Science Programs

Jennifer Jeschke
University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee
Research:  Theoretical Particle Physics

Jeffrey Paradis
University of Wisconsin-Whitewater
Research:  Observations at Yerkes Observatory to Study Dark Matter

Maria Spletter
University of Wisconsin-Madison
Research:  Plant Biology

John Sullivan
University of Wisconsin-LaCrosse
Research:  Frequency Measurements and Stark Spectroscopy of CH30D Using Molecular Lasers in the Far-Infrared

JoAnne Turner
University of Wisconsin-Madison
Research:  Efficacy of Growth Hormone as a Counter Measure for Space Flight-Induced Musculoskeletal Atrophy


Amy J. Anschutz
Carroll College
ResearchStudy of Small Molecular clusters

Jeannette M. Curran
University of Wisconsin-Whitewater
Research:  Ways to use the vast material at NASA to teach Mathematics

Heidi J. Hockel
University of Wisconsin-LaCrosse
Research:  Detect & measure new laser emissions from an optically pumped molecular laser

Justin E. Seipel
University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee
Research:  Aerodynamics: incompressible, subsonic flow over airfoil

Jodi A. Supanich
University of Wisconsin-Madison
Research:  Observational Cosmology: Cosmic microwave background radiation

Mark P. Supanich
University of Wisconsin-Madison
Research:  Study of atmospheric polarization & the anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background radiation


Efrat Lelkes
University of Wisconsin-Madison
Research:  Effects of Microgravity on Cultured Cells

Kenneth Rewolinski
University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee
ResearchSurface Studies Related to Metal-Oxide Absorption of Water

Nicholas G. Roland
University of Wisconsin-LaCrosse
Research:  High Resolution Spectroscopy of Interstellar Molecules

Mark P. Supanich
University of Wisconsin-Madison
Research:  Observational Cosmology Focusing on Anisotropy Measurements of the Cosmic Microwave Background

Randy W. Wolfmeyer
University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee
Research:  Cosmology-Inflation Theory